Abstract:
Motivated by a classical comparison result of J. C. F. Sturm we introduce a curvature-dimension condition CD(k,N) for general metric measure spaces and variable lower curvature bound k. In the case of non-zero constant lower curvature our approach coincides with the celebrated condition that was proposed by K.-T. Sturm. We prove several geometric properties as sharp Bishop-Gromov volume growth comparison or a sharp generalized Bonnet-Myers theorem (Schneider's Theorem). Additionally, our curvature-dimension condition is stable with respect to measured Gromov-Hausdorff convergence, and it is stable with respect to tensorization of finitely many metric measure spaces provided a non-branching condition is assumed.

Abstract:
We find a necessary and sufficient condition for a doubling metric space to carry a (1,p)-Poincare inequality. The condition involves discretizations of the metric space and Poincare inequalities on graphs.

Abstract:
The metric geometry of stable metric spaces and its application to geometric group theory and noncommutative geometry is discussed. Despite being mostly expository, this article contains some new results and some open problems.

Abstract:
We construct the differential geometry of smooth manifolds equipped with an algebraic curvature map acting as an area measure. Area metric geometry provides a spacetime structure suitable for the discussion of gauge theories and strings, and is considerably more general than Lorentzian geometry. Our construction of geometrically relevant objects, such as an area metric compatible connection and derived tensors, makes essential use of a decomposition theorem due to Gilkey, whereby we generate the area metric from a finite collection of metrics. Employing curvature invariants for multi-metric backgrounds we devise a class of gravity theories with inherently stringy character, and discuss gauge matter actions.

Abstract:
Using techniques of optimal transportation and gradient flows in metric spaces, we extend the notion of Riemannian Curvature Dimension condition $RCD(K,\infty)$ introduced (in case the reference measure is finite) by Giuseppe Savare', the first and the second author, to the case the reference measure is $\sigma$-finite; in this way the theory includes natural examples as the euclidean $n$-dimensional space endowed with the Lebesgue measure, and noncompact manifolds with bounded geometry endowed with the Riemannian volume measure. Another major goal of the paper is to simplify the axiomatization of $RCD(K,\infty)$ (even in case of finite reference measure) replacing the assumption of strict $CD(K,\infty)$ with the classic notion of $CD(K,\infty)$.

Abstract:
We construct Patterson-Sullivan measure and a natural metric on the unit space of a hyperbolic groupoid. In particular, this gives a new approach to defining SRB measures on Smale spaces using Gromov hyperbolic graphs.

Abstract:
Dubickas and Smyth defined the metric Mahler measure on the multiplicative group of non-zero algebraic numbers. The definition involves taking an infimum over representations of an algebraic number $\alpha$ by other algebraic numbers. We verify their conjecture that the infimum in its definition is always achieved as well as establish its analog for the ultrametric Mahler measure.

Abstract:
We prove the equivalence between geometric and analytic definitions of quasiconformality for a homeomorphism $f\colon X\rightarrow Y$ between arbitrary locally finite separable metric measure spaces, assuming no metric hypotheses on either space. When $X$ and $Y$ have locally $Q$-bounded geometry and $Y$ is contained in an Alexandrov space of curvature bounded above, the sharpness of our results implies that, as in the classical case, the modular and pointwise outer dilatations of $\map$ are related by $K_O(f)= \operatorname{esssup} H_O(x,f)$.

Abstract:
A marked metric measure space (mmm-space) is a triple (X,r,mu), where (X,r) is a complete and separable metric space and mu is a probability measure on XxI for some Polish space I of possible marks. We study the space of all (equivalence classes of) marked metric measure spaces for some fixed I. It arises as state space in the construction of Markov processes which take values in random graphs, e.g. tree-valued dynamics describing randomly evolving genealogical structures in population models. We derive here the topological properties of the space of mmm-spaces needed to study convergence in distribution of random mmm-spaces. Extending the notion of the Gromov-weak topology introduced in (Greven, Pfaffelhuber and Winter, 2009), we define the marked Gromov-weak topology, which turns the set of mmm-spaces into a Polish space. We give a characterization of tightness for families of distributions of random mmm- spaces and identify a convergence determining algebra of functions, called polynomials.

Abstract:
In this paper, we study harmonic functions on metric measure spaces with Riemannian Ricci curvature bounded from below, which were introduced by Ambrosio-Gigli-Savar\'e. We prove a Cheng-Yau type local gradient estimate for harmonic functions on these spaces. Furthermore, we derive various optimal dimension estimates for spaces of polynomial growth harmonic functions on metric measure spaces with nonnegative Riemannian Ricci curvature.