Abstract:
We show how spatiotemporal fluctuations can induce spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems which are perfectly symmetric in the absence of fluctuations. We illustrate this in the context of the autocatalytic production of chiral enantiomers from achiral reactants in reaction-diffusion systems. The mean field steady state is chiral symmetric; spatiotemporal fluctuations induce a novel (molecular) chiral ordering and sharp phase transitions including reentrance. We discuss its implications in the context of the emergence of molecular homochirality.

Abstract:
We investigate one-dimensional driven diffusive systems where particles may also be created and annihilated in the bulk with sufficiently small rate. In an open geometry, i.e., coupled to particle reservoirs at the two ends, these systems can exhibit ergodicity breaking in the thermodynamic limit. The triggering mechanism is the random motion of a shock in an effective potential. Based on this physical picture we provide a simple condition for the existence of a non-ergodic phase in the phase diagram of such systems. In the thermodynamic limit this phase exhibits two or more stationary states. However, for finite systems transitions between these states are possible. It is shown that the mean lifetime of such a metastable state is exponentially large in system-size. As an example the ASEP with the A0A--AAA reaction kinetics is analyzed in detail. We present a detailed discussion of the phase diagram of this particular model which indeed exhibits a phase with broken ergodicity. We measure the lifetime of the metastable states with a Monte Carlo simulation in order to confirm our analytical findings.

Abstract:
In this article we formulate new models for coupled systems of bulk-surface reaction-diffusion equations on stationary volumes. The bulk reaction-diffusion equations are coupled to the surface reaction-diffusion equations through linear Robin-type boundary conditions. We then state and prove the necessary conditions for diffusion-driven instability for the coupled system. Due to the nature of the coupling between bulk and surface dynamics, we are able to decouple the stability analysis of the bulk and surface dynamics. Under a suitable choice of model parameter values, the bulk reaction-diffusion system can induce patterning on the surface independent of whether the surface reaction-diffusion system produces or not, patterning. On the other hand, the surface reaction-diffusion system can not generate patterns everywhere in the bulk in the absence of patterning from the bulk reaction-diffusion system. For this case, patterns can only be induced in regions close to the surface membrane. Various numerical experiments are presented to support our theoretical findings. Our most revealing numerical result is that, Robin-type boundary conditions seem to introduce a boundary layer coupling the bulk and surface dynamics.

Abstract:
We propose the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking of a bulk vector field as a way to generate the selection of bulk dimensions invisible to the standard model confined to the brane. By assigning a non-vanishing vacuum value to the vector field, a direction is singled out in the bulk vacuum, thus breaking the bulk Lorentz symmetry. We present the condition for induced Lorentz symmetry on the brane, as phenomenologically required.

Abstract:
In multicellular organisms, epithelial cells form layers separating compartments responsible for different physiological functions. At the early stage of epithelial layer formation, each cell of an aggregate defines an inner and an outer side by breaking the symmetry of its initial state, in a process known as epithelial polarization. By integrating recent biochemical and biophysical data with stochastic simulations of the relevant reaction-diffusion system we provide evidence that epithelial cell polarization is a chemical phase separation process induced by a local bistability in the signaling network at the level of the cell membrane. The early symmetry breaking event triggering phase separation is induced by adhesion-dependent mechanical forces localized in the point of convergence of cell surfaces when a threshold number of confluent cells is reached. The generality of the emerging phase separation scenario is likely common to many processes of cell polarity formation.

Abstract:
In a two species reaction diffusion system,we show that it is possible to generate a set of wavelength doubling bifuractions leading to spatially chaotic state.The wavelength doubling bifurcations are preceded by a symmetry breaking transition which acts as a precursor.

Abstract:
A new physical origin for electroweak symmetry breaking is proposed, involving compact spatial dimensions of scale 1/R \approx 1 TeV. The higher dimensional theory is supersymmetric, and hence requires the top-quark Yukawa coupling to be localized on some ``Yukawa brane'' in the bulk. The short distance divergence in the Higgs-boson mass is regulated because supersymmetry is unbroken in the vicinity of this Yukawa brane. A finite, negative Higgs mass-squared is generated radiatively by the top-quark supermultiplet propagating a distance of order R from the Yukawa brane to probe supersymmetry breaking. The physics of electroweak symmetry breaking is therefore closely related to this top propagation across the bulk, and is dominated by the mass scale 1/R, with exponential insensitivity to higher energy scales. The masses of the superpartners and the Kaluza-Klein resonances are also set by the mass scale 1/R, which is naturally larger than the W boson mass by a loop factor. Explicit models are constructed which are highly constrained and predictive. The finite radiative correction to the Higgs mass is computed, and the Higgs sector briefly explored. The superpartner and Kaluza-Klein resonance spectra are calculated, and the problem of flavor violation from squark and slepton exchange is solved. Important collider signatures include highly ionizing charged tracks from stable top squarks, and events with two Higgs bosons and missing transverse energy.

Abstract:
We demonstrate the non-ergodicity of a simple Markovian stochastic processes with space-dependent diffusion coefficient $D(x)$. For power-law forms $D(x) \simeq|x|^{\alpha}$, this process yield anomalous diffusion of the form $\ < x^2(t)\ > \simeq t^{2/(2-\alpha)}$. Interestingly, in both the sub- and superdiffusive regimes we observe weak ergodicity breaking: the scaling of the time averaged mean squared displacement $\{\delta^2}$ remains \emph{linear} and thus differs from the corresponding ensemble average $\ $. We analyze the non-ergodic behavior of this process in terms of the ergodicity breaking parameters and the distribution of amplitude scatter of $\{\delta^2}$. This model represents an alternative approach to non-ergodic, anomalous diffusion that might be particularly relevant for diffusion in heterogeneous media.

Abstract:
Propagation of solitary waves in the presence of autocatalysis, diffusion, and symmetry breaking (differential) advection, is being studied. The focus is on drifting (propagating with advection) pulses that form via a convective instability at lower reaction rates of the autocatalytic activator, i.e. the advective flow overcomes the fast excitation and induces a drifting fluid type behavior. Using spatial dynamics analysis of a minimal case model, we present the properties and the organization of such pulses. The insights underly a general understanding of localized transport in simple reaction-diffusion-advection models and thus provide a background to potential chemical and biological applications.

Abstract:
The diffusion of a bulk absorbed gas species out of spherical pebbles is studied analytically, stressing the usefulness of the time integral of the diffusion coefficient for analysis of arbitrary temperature schedule experiments. Highly accurate approximations are introduced where the numeric evaluation of the analytic expressions takes considerable time. A method is proposed to extract the diffusion kinetic parameters from a single linear heating ramp, namely, the activation energy of the diffusion coefficient and the ratio of the corresponding preexponential factor to the radius of spherical pebbles.