Abstract:
This article is the third and last part of a series of three articles about compatible systems of symplectic Galois representations and applications to the inverse Galois problem. This part proves the following new result for the inverse Galois problem for symplectic groups. For any even positive integer n and any positive integer d, PSp_n(F_{l^d}) or PGSp_n(F_{l^d}) occurs as a Galois group over the rational numbers for a positive density set of primes l. The result is obtained by showing the existence of a regular, algebraic, self-dual, cuspidal automorphic representation of GL_n(A_Q) with local types chosen so as to obtain a compatible system of Galois representations to which the results from Part II of this series apply.

Abstract:
This article is the second part of a series of three articles about compatible systems of symplectic Galois representations and applications to the inverse Galois problem. This part is concerned with symplectic Galois representations having a huge residual image, by which we mean that a symplectic group of full dimension over the prime field is contained up to conjugation. A key ingredient is a classification of symplectic representations whose image contains a nontrivial transvection: these fall into three very simply describable classes, the reducible ones, the induced ones and those with huge image. Using the idea of an (n,p)-group of Khare, Larsen and Savin we give simple conditions under which a symplectic Galois representation with coefficients in a finite field has a huge image. Finally, we combine this classification result with the main result of the first part to obtain a strenghtened application to the inverse Galois problem.

Abstract:
We prove a reciprocity law for one-dimensional compatible systems of mod p representations of absolute Galois groups of number fields. We prove that these arise from Hecke characters, and in particular recover by purely algebraic means the classical result (that is usually proven using deep results of Waldschmidt in transcendental number theory) that one-dimensional compatible p-adic systems arise from Hecke characters.

Abstract:
The main result of the paper is a reciprocity law which proves that compatible systems of semisimple, abelian mod $p$ representations (of arbitrary dimension) of absolute Galois groups of number fields, arise from Hecke characters. In the last section of the paper analogs for Galois groups of function fields of these results are explored, and a question is raised whose answer will require developments in transcendence theory in characteristic $p$.

Abstract:
A symmetry in quantum mechanics is described by the projective representations of a Lie symmetry group that transforms between physical quantum states such that the square of the modulus of the states is invariant. The Heisenberg commutation relations, that are fundamental to quantum mechanics, must be valid in all of these physical states. This paper shows that the maximal quantum symmetry group, whose projective representations preserve the Heisenberg commutation relations in this manner, is the inhomogeneous symplectic group. The projective representations are equivalent to the unitary representations of the central extension of the inhomogeneous symplectic group. This centrally extended group is the semidirect product of the cover of the symplectic group and the Weyl-Heisenberg group. Its unitary irreducible representations are computed explicitly using the Mackey representation theorems for semidirect product groups.

Abstract:
We study compatible families of four-dimensional Galois representations constructed in the \'{e}tale cohomology of a smooth projective variety. We prove a theorem asserting that the images will be generically large if certain conditions are satisfied. We only consider representations with coefficients in an imaginary quadratic field. We apply our result to an example constructed by Jasper Scholten, obtaining a family of linear groups and one of unitary groups as Galois groups over $\mathbb{Q}$.

Abstract:
Let $G$ be a Lie group with a biinvariant metric, not necessarily positive definite. It is shown that a certain construction carried out in an earlier paper for the fundamental group of a closed surface may be extended to an arbitrary infinite orientation preserving cocompact planar discrete group of euclidean or non-euclidean motions $\pi$ and yields (i) a symplectic structure on a certain smooth manifold $\Cal M$ containing the space $\roman{Hom}(\pi,G)$ of homomorphisms and, furthermore, (ii) a hamiltonian $G$-action on $\Cal M$ preserving the symplectic structure together with a momentum mapping in such a way that the reduced space equals the space $\roman{Rep}(\pi,G)$ of representations. More generally, the construction also applies to certain spaces of projective representations. For $G$ compact, the resulting spaces of representations inherit structures of {\it stratified symplectic space\/} in such a way that the strata have finite symplectic volume . For example, {\smc Mehta-Seshadri} moduli spaces of semistable holomorphic parabolic bundles with rational weights or spaces closely related to them arise in this way by {\it symplectic reduction in finite dimensions\/}.

Abstract:
A strategy to address the inverse Galois problem over Q consists of exploiting the knowledge of Galois representations attached to certain automorphic forms. More precisely, if such forms are carefully chosen, they provide compatible systems of Galois representations satisfying some desired properties, e.g. properties that reflect on the image of the members of the system. In this article we survey some results obtained using this strategy.

Abstract:
For a fixed odd prime p and a representation \rho of the absolute Galois group of Q into the projective group PGL(2,p), we provide the twisted modular curves whose rational points supply the quadratic Q-curves of degree N prime to p that realize \rho through the Galois action on their p-torsion modules. The modular curve to twist is either the fiber product of the modular curves X_0(N) and X(p) or a certain quotient of Atkin-Lehner type, depending on the value of N mod p. For our purposes, a special care must be taken in fixing rational models for these modular curves and in studying their automorphisms. By performing some genus computations, we obtain from Faltings' theorem some finiteness results on the number of quadratic Q-curves of a given degree N realizing \rho.

Abstract:
We show that an infinite family of odd complex 2-dimensional Galois representations ramified at 5 having nonsolvable projective image are modular, thereby verifying Artin's conjecture for a new case of examples. Such a family contains the original example studied by Buhler. In the process, we prove that an infinite family of residually modular Galois representations are modular by studying $\Lambda$-adic Hecke algebras.