Abstract:
A study of general properties of the narrow-width approximation (NWA) with polarization/spin decorrelation is presented. We prove for total rates of arbitrary resonant decay or scattering processes with an on-shell intermediate state decaying via a cubic or quartic vertex that decorrelation effects vanish and the NWA is of order Gamma. Its accuracy is then determined numerically for all resonant 3-body decays involving scalars, spin-1/2 fermions or vector bosons. We specialize the general results to MSSM benchmark scenarios. Significant off-shell corrections can occur - similar in size to QCD corrections. We qualify the configurations in which a combined consideration is advisable. For this purpose, we also investigate process-independent methods to improve the NWA.

Abstract:
We apply standard post-Newtonian methods in general relativity to locate the innermost circular orbit (ICO) of irrotational and corotational binary black-hole systems. We find that the post-Newtonian series converges well when the two masses are comparable. We argue that the result for the ICO which is predicted by the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation is likely to be very close to the ``exact'' solution, within 1% of fractional accuracy or better. The 3PN result is also in remarkable agreement with a numerical calculation of the ICO in the case of two corotating black holes moving on exactly circular orbits. The behaviour of the post-Newtonian series suggests that the gravitational dynamics of two bodies of comparable masses does not resemble that of a test particle on a Schwarzschild background. This leads us to question the validity of some post-Newtonian resummation techniques that are based on the idea that the field generated by two black holes is a deformation of the Schwarzschild space-time.

Abstract:
The production of antihydrogen in flight in antiproton-nucleus collisions is calculated theoretically in the Plane Wave Born Approximation (which is equivalent to the straight line semiclassical approximation). Antihydrogen has been produced in this way at LEAR/CERN and is presently studied at FERMILAB at various antiproton energies. Dirac wave functions for the leptons are used, taking first order (Z.alpha) corrections into account. Analytical results are obtained for differential cross-sections. Total cross sections are obtained by numerical integration. The dependence on the transverse momentum transfer is studied and the accuracy of the equivalent photon approximation and a recent variant by Munger, Brodsky,and Schmidt is discussed as a function of beam energy.

Abstract:
This article addresses a fundamental concern regarding the incompressible approximation of fluid motions, one of the most widely used approximations in fluid mechanics. Common belief is that its accuracy is $O(\epsilon)$ where $\epsilon$ denotes the Mach number. In this article, however, we prove an $O(\epsilon^2)$ accuracy for the incompressible approximation of the isentropic, compressible Euler equations thanks to several decoupling properties. At the initial time, the velocity field and its first time derivative are of $O(1)$ size, but the boundary conditions can be as stringent as the solid-wall type. The fast acoustic waves are still $O(\epsilon)$ in magnitude, since the $O(\epsilon^2)$ error is measured in the sense of Leray projection and more physically, in time-averages. We also show when a passive scalar is transported by the flow, it is $O(\epsilon^2)$ accurate {\it pointwise in time} to use incompressible approximation for the velocity field in the transport equation.

Abstract:
We analyse the accuracy of the approximate WKB quantization for the case of general one-dimensional quartic potential. In particular, we are interested in the validity of semiclassically predicted energy eigenvalues when approaching the limit $E\to \infty$, and in the accuracy of low lying energy levels below the potential barrier in the case of generally asymmetric double-well quartic potential. In the latter case, using the standard WKB quantization an unnatural localization of eigenstates due to the negligence of tunneling is implied and thus the validity of semiclassics is uncertain. In all computations the higher order corrections to the leading semiclassical approximation are included using the complex contour integration technique. We show that these corrections can improve accuracy of semiclassical approximation greatly by many orders of magnitude.

Abstract:
Many, if not most, control processes demonstrate nonlinear behavior in some portion of their operating range and the ability of neural networks to model non-linear dynamics makes them very appealing for control. Control of high reliability safety systems, and autonomous control in process or robotic applications, however, require accurate and consistent control and neural networks are only approximators of various functions so their degree of approximation becomes important.In this paper, the factors affecting the ability of a feedforward back-propagation neural network to accurately approximate a non-linear function are explored. Compared to pattern recognition using a neural network for function approximation provides an easy and accurate method for determining the network’s accuracy.In contrast to other techniques, we show that errors arising in function approximation or curve fitting are caused by the neural network itself rather than scatter in the data. A method is proposed that provides improvements in the accuracy achieved during training and resulting ability of the network to generalize after training. Binary input vectors provided a more accurate model than with scalar inputs and retraining using a small number of the outlier x,y pairs improved generalization.

Abstract:
The accuracy of the Faddeev random phase approximation (FRPA) method is tested by calculating the total and ionization energies of a set of light atoms up to Ar. Comparisons are made with the results of coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)], and with the experiment. It is seen that even for two-electron systems, He and Be-2+, the inclusion of RPA effects leads to satisfactory results and therefore it does not over-correlate the ground state. The FRPA becomes progressively better for larger atomic numbers where it gives about 5 mH more correlation energy and it shifts ionization potentials by 2-10 mH, with respect to its sister method ADC(3). The corrections for ionization potentials consistently reduce the discrepancies with the experiment.

Abstract:
A test on the numerical accuracy of the semiclassical approximation as a function of the principal quantum number has been performed for the Pullen--Edmonds model, a two--dimensional, non--integrable, scaling invariant perturbation of the resonant harmonic oscillator. A perturbative interpretation is obtained of the recently observed phenomenon of the accuracy decrease on the approximation of individual energy levels at the increase of the principal quantum number. Moreover, the accuracy provided by the semiclassical approximation formula is on the average the same as that provided by quantum perturbation theory.

Abstract:
We have calculated the non-radial oscillation in slowly rotating relativistic stars with the Cowling approximation. The frequencies are compared with those based on the complete linearized equations of general relativity. It is found that the results with the approximation differ by less than about $20 %$ for typical relativistic stellar models. The approximation is more accurate for higher-order modes as in the Newtonian case.

Abstract:
Adiabatic approximation for quantum evolution is investigated quantitatively with addressing its dependence on the Berry connections. We find that, in the adiabatic limit, the adiabatic fidelity may uniformly converge to unit or diverge manifesting the breakdown of adiabatic approximation, depending on the type of the singularity of the Berry connections as the functions of slowly-varying parameter $R$. When the Berry connections have a singularity of $1/R^\sigma$ type with $\sigma < 1$, the adiabatic fidelity converges to unit in a power-law; whereas when the singularity index $\sigma$ is larger than one, adiabatic approximation breaks down. Two-level models are used to substantiate our theory.