Abstract:
This paper initiates a systematic study of the relation of commensurability of surface automorphisms, or equivalently, fibered commensurability of 3-manifolds fibering over the circle. We show that every hyperbolic fibered commensurability class contains a unique minimal element, whereas the class of Seifert manifolds fibering over the circle consists of a single commensurability class with infinitely many minimal elements. The situation for non-geometric manifolds is more complicated, and we illustrate a range of phenomena that can occur in this context.

Abstract:
We investigate commensurability classes of hyperbolic knot complements in the generic case of knots without hidden symmetries. We show that such knot complements which are commensurable are cyclically commensurable, and that there are at most $3$ hyperbolic knot complements in a cyclic commensurability class. Moreover if two hyperbolic knots have cyclically commensurable complements, then they are fibered with the same genus and are chiral. A characterisation of cyclic commensurability classes of complements of periodic knots is also given. In the non-periodic case, we reduce the characterisation of cyclic commensurability classes to a generalization of the Berge conjecture.

Abstract:
In this paper we analyze and classify the totally geodesic subspaces of finite volume quaternionic hyperbolic orbifolds and their generalizations, locally symmetric orbifolds arising from irreducible lattices in Lie groups of the form $(\mathbf{Sp}_{2n}(\mathbb{R}))^q \times \prod_{i=1}^r \mathbf{Sp}(p_i,n-p_i) \times (\mathbf{Sp}_{2n}(\mathbb{C}))^s$. We give criteria for when the totally geodesic subspaces of such an orbifold determine its commensurability class. We give a parametrization of the commensurability classes of finite volume quaternionic hyperbolic orbifolds in terms of arithmetic data, which we use to show that the complex hyperbolic totally geodesic subspaces of a quaternionic hyperbolic orbifold determine its commensurability class, but the real hyperbolic totally geodesic subspaces do not. Lastly, our tools allow us to show that every cocompact lattice $\Gamma<\mathbf{Sp}(m,1)$, $m\ge 2$, contains quasiconvex surface subgroups.

Abstract:
We initiate the study of the $p$-local commensurability graph of a group, where $p$ is a prime. This graph has vertices consisting of all finite-index subgroups of a group, where an edge is drawn between $A$ and $B$ if $[A : A\cap B]$ and $[B: A\cap B]$ are both powers of $p$. We show that any component of the $p$-local commensurability graph of a group with all nilpotent finite quotients is complete. Further, this topological criterion characterizes such groups. In contrast to this result, we show that for any prime $p$ the $p$-local commensurability graph of any large group (e.g. a nonabelian free group or a surface group of genus two or more or, more generally, any virtually special group) has geodesics of arbitrarily long length.

Abstract:
We develop a theory of commensurability of groups, of rings, and of modules. It allows us, in certain cases, to compare sizes of automorphism groups of modules, even when those are infinite. This work is motivated by the Cohen-Lenstra heuristics on class groups. The number theoretic implications will be addressed in a separate paper.

Abstract:
Recently, there is an explosive growth of activities to understand stringy properties of orbifolds. In this article, we survey some of recent developments.

Abstract:
The first goal of this survey paper is to argue that if orbifolds are groupoids, then the collection of orbifolds and their maps has to be thought of as a 2-category. Compare this with the classical definition of Satake and Thurston of orbifolds as a 1-category of sets with extra structure and/or with the "modern" definition of orbifolds as proper etale Lie groupoids up to Morita equivalence. The second goal is to describe two complementary ways of thinking of orbifolds as a 2-category: 1. the weak 2-category of foliation Lie groupoids, bibundles and equivariant maps between bibundles and 2. the strict 2-category of Deligne-Mumford stacks over the category of smooth manifolds.

Abstract:
This article introduces
application of the expanding commensurability in earthquake prediction. The
results show that most of the world’s major earthquake occurred at their
commensurable points of time axis. An EQ 7.0 occurred in Lushan of China on
2013-04-20 and an EQ 8.2 occurred in Iquique of northern Chile on 2014-04-01
all occurred at their commensurable points of time axis. This once again proves
that the commensurability provides an important scientific basisfor the prediction of major
earthquakes, which will occur in the area in future.

Abstract:
The work of Reid, Chinburg--Hamilton--Long--Reid, Prasad--Rapinchuk, and the author with Reid have demonstrated that geodesics or totally geodesic submanifolds can sometimes be used to determine the commensurability class of an arithmetic manifold. The main results of this article show that generalizations of these results to other arithmetic manifolds will require a wide range of data. Specifically, we prove that certain incommensurable arithmetic manifolds arising from the semisimple Lie groups of the form $(\SL(d,\R))^r \times (\SL(d,\C))^s$ have the same commensurability classes of totally geodesic submanifolds coming from a fixed field. This construction is algebraic and shows the failure of determining, in general, a central simple algebra from subalgebras over a fixed field. This, in turn, can be viewed in terms of forms of $\SL_d$ and the failure of determining the form via certain classes of algebraic subgroups.

Abstract:
We consider orbifolds as diffeological spaces. This gives rise to a natural notion of differentiable maps between orbifolds, making them into a subcategory of diffeology. We prove that the diffeological approach to orbifolds is equivalent to Satake's notion of a V-manifold and to Haefliger's notion of an orbifold. This follows from a lemma: a diffeomorphism (in the diffeological sense) of finite linear quotients lifts to an equivariant diffeomorphism.