Abstract:
Flame Propagation is used as a prototypical example of expanding fronts that wrinkle without limit in radial geometries but reach a simple shape in channel geometry. We show that the relevant scaling laws that govern the radial growth can be inferred once the simpler channel geometry is understood in detail. In radial geometries (in contrast to channel geometries) the effect of external noise is crucial in accelerating and wrinkling the fronts. Nevertheless, once the interrelations between system size, velocity of propagation and noise level are understood in channel geometry, the scaling laws for radial growth follow.

Abstract:
For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

Abstract:
The largely open problem of scaling laws in fully developed turbulence is discussed, with the stress put on similarities and differences with scaling in field theory. A soluble model of the passive advection is examined in more detail in order to illustrate the principal ideas.

Abstract:
We propose new scaling laws for the properties of planetary dynamos. In particular, the Rossby number, the magnetic Reynolds number, the ratio of magnetic to kinetic energy, the Ohmic dissipation timescale and the characteristic aspect ratio of the columnar convection cells are all predicted to be power-law functions of two observable quantities: the magnetic dipole moment and the planetary rotation rate. The resulting scaling laws constitute a somewhat modified version of the scalings proposed in Christensen & Aubert (2006) and Christensen (2010). The main difference is that, in view of the small value of the Rossby number in planetary cores, we insist that the nonlinear inertial term, (u.grad)u, is negligible. This changes the exponents in the power-laws which relate the various properties of the fluid dynamo to the planetary dipole moment and rotation rate. Our scaling laws are consistent with the available numerical evidence.

Abstract:
We consider magnetic fields generated by homogeneous isotropic and parity invariant turbulent flows. We show that simple scaling laws for dynamo threshold, magnetic energy and Ohmic dissipation can be obtained depending on the value of the magnetic Prandtl number.

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate information-theoretic scaling laws, independent from communication strategies, for point-to-point molecular communication, where it sends/receives information-encoded molecules between nanomachines. Since the Shannon capacity for this is still an open problem, we first derive an asymptotic order in a single coordinate, i.e., i) scaling time with constant number of molecules $m$ and ii) scaling molecules with constant time $t$. For a single coordinate case, we show that the asymptotic scaling is logarithmic in either coordinate, i.e., $\Theta(\log t)$ and $\Theta(\log m)$, respectively. We also study asymptotic behavior of scaling in both time and molecules and show that, if molecules and time are proportional to each other, then the asymptotic scaling is linear, i.e., $\Theta(t)=\Theta(m)$.

Abstract:
The underwater acoustic channel is characterized by a path loss that depends not only on the transmission distance, but also on the signal frequency. Signals transmitted from one user to another over a distance $l$ are subject to a power loss of $l^{-\alpha}{a(f)}^{-l}$. Although a terrestrial radio channel can be modeled similarly, the underwater acoustic channel has different characteristics. The spreading factor $\alpha$, related to the geometry of propagation, has values in the range $1 \leq \alpha \leq 2$. The absorption coefficient $a(f)$ is a rapidly increasing function of frequency: it is three orders of magnitude greater at 100 kHz than at a few Hz. Existing results for capacity of wireless networks correspond to scenarios for which $a(f) = 1$, or a constant greater than one, and $\alpha \geq 2$. These results cannot be applied to underwater acoustic networks in which the attenuation varies over the system bandwidth. We use a water-filling argument to assess the minimum transmission power and optimum transmission band as functions of the link distance and desired data rate, and study the capacity scaling laws under this model.

Abstract:
We study the expansion of the universe at late times in the case that the cosmological constant obeys certain scaling laws motivated by renormalisation group running in quantum theories. The renormalisation scale is identified with the Hubble scale and the inverse radii of the event and particle horizon, respectively. We find de Sitter solutions, power-law expansion and super-exponential expansion in addition to future singularities of the Big Rip and Big Crunch type.

Abstract:
The partial differential equation for the imaginary part of the elastic scattering amplitude is derived. It is solved in the black disk limit. The asymptotical scaling behavior of the amplitude coinciding with the geometrical scaling is proved. Its extension to preasymptotical region and modifications of scaling laws for the differential cross section are considered.

Abstract:
The sensitive conductance change of semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes in response to binding of charged molecules provide a novel sensing modality which is generally denoted as nanoFET sensors. In this paper, we study the scaling laws of nanoplate FET sensors by simplifying nanoplates as random resistor networks with molecular receptors sitting on lattice sites. Nanowire/tube FETs are included as the limiting cases where the device width goes small. Computer simulations show that the field effect strength exerted by the binding molecules has significant impact on the scaling behaviors. When the field effect strength is small, nanoFETs have little size and shape dependence. In contrast, when the field-effect strength becomes stronger, there exists a lower detection threshold for charge accumulation FETs and an upper detection threshold for charge depletion FET sensors. At these thresholds, the nanoFET devices undergo a transition between low and large sensitivities. These thresholds may set the detection limits of nanoFET sensors, while could be eliminated by designing devices with very short source-drain distance and large width.