Abstract:
This paper introduces Auslander-Reiten triangles in subcategories of triangulated categories. The main theorem of the paper shows that there is a close connection with covers and envelopes, also known as minimal right- and left-approximations. Namely, under suitable assumptions, if M is an object in the subcategory C of the triangulated category T and X --> Y --> M --> is an Auslander-Reiten triangle in T, then there is an Auslander-Reiten triangle K --> L --> M --> in C if and only if there is a C-cover of the form K --> X. The main theorem is used to give a new proof of the existence of Auslander-Reiten sequences over finite dimensional algebras.

Abstract:
This paper studies the existence of Auslander-Reiten sequences in subcategories of mod A, where A is a finite dimensional algebra over a field. The two main theorems give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of Auslander-Reiten sequences in subcategories. Let M be a subcategory of mod A closed under extensions and direct summands, and let X be an indecomposable module in M such that Ext^{1}(X, X') is not zero for some X' in M. Then the following are equivalent: (i) DTrX has a precover in the stable category of mod A, (ii) There exists an Auslander-Reiten sequence 0 --> U --> W --> X --> 0 in M. We also have the dual result of the above theorem.

Abstract:
Auslander-Reiten theory is fundamental to study categories which appear in representation theory, for example, modules over artin algebras, Cohen-Macaulay modules over Cohen-Macaulay rings, lattices over orders, and coherent sheaves on projective curves. In these Auslander-Reiten theories, the number `2' is quite symbolic. For one thing, almost split sequences give minimal projective resolutions of simple functors of projective dimension `2'. For another, Cohen-Macaulay rings of Krull-dimension `2' provide us with one of the most beautiful situation in representation theory, which is closely related to McKay's observation on simple singularities. In this sense, usual Auslander-Reiten theory should be `2-dimensional' theory, and it be natural to find a setting for higher dimensional Auslander-Reiten theory from the viewpoint of representation theory and non-commutative algebraic geometry. We introduce maximal $(n-1)$-orthogonal subcategories as a natural domain of higher dimensional Auslander-Reiten theory which should be `$(n+1)$-dimensional'. We show that the $n$-Auslander-Reiten translation functor and the $n$-Auslander-Reiten duality can be defined quite naturally for such categories. Using them, we show that our categories have {\it $n$-almost split sequences}, which give minimal projective resolutions of simple objects of projective dimension `$n+1$' in functor categories. We show that an invariant subring (of Krull-dimension `$n+1$') corresponding to a finite subgroup $G$ of ${\rm GL}(n+1,k)$ has a natural maximal $(n-1)$-orthogonal subcategory. We give a classification of all maximal 1-orthogonal subcategories for representation-finite selfinjective algebras and representation-finite Gorenstein orders of classical type.

Abstract:
We recall several results in Auslander-Reiten theory for finite-dimensional algebras over fields and orders over complete local rings. Then we introduce $n$-cluster tilting subcategories and higher theory of almost split sequences and Auslander algebras there. Several examples are explained.

Abstract:
We use the theory of Auslander Buchweitz approximations to classify certain resolving subcategories containing a semidualizing or a dualizing module. In particular, we show that if the ring has a dualizing module, then the resolving subcategories containing maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules are in bijection with grade consistent functions and thus are the precisely the dominant resolving subcategories.

Abstract:
In studying Nakayama's 1958 conjecture on rings of infinite dominant dimension, Auslander and Reiten proposed the following generalization: Let Lambda be an Artin algebra and M a Lambda-generator such that Ext^i_Lambda(M,M)=0 for all i \geq 1; then M is projective. This conjecture makes sense for any ring. We establish Auslander and Reiten's conjecture for excellent Cohen--Macaulay normal domains containing the rational numbers, and slightly more generally.

Abstract:
An Auslander-Reiten formula for complexes of modules is presented. This formula contains as a special case the classical Auslander Reiten formula. The Auslander-Reiten translate of a complex is described explicitly, and various applications are discussed.

Abstract:
We classify certain resolving subcategories of finitely generated modules over a commutative noetherian ring R by using integer-valued functions on Spec R. As an application we give a complete classification of resolving subcategories when R is a locally hypersurface ring. Our results also recover a "missing theorem" by Auslander.

Abstract:
Motivated by a result of Araya, we extend the Auslander-Reiten duality theorem to Cohen-Macaulay local rings. We also study the Auslander-Reiten conjecture, which is rooted in Nakayama's work on finite dimensional algebras. One of our results detects a certain condition that forces the conjecture to hold over local rings of positive depth.

Abstract:
Let $R$ be an artin algebra and $\mathcal{C}$ an additive subcategory of $\operatorname{mod}(R)$. We construct a $t$-structure on the homotopy category $\operatorname{K}^{-}(\mathcal{C})$ whose heart $\mathcal{H}_{\mathcal{C}}$ is a natural domain for higher Auslander-Reiten (AR) theory. The abelian categories $\mathcal{H}_{\operatorname{mod}(R)}$ (which is the natural domain for classical AR theory) and $\mathcal{H}_{\mathcal{C}}$ interact via various functors. If $\mathcal{C}$ is functorially finite then $\mathcal{H}_{\mathcal{C}}$ is a quotient category of $\mathcal{H}_{\operatorname{mod}(R)}$. We illustrate the theory with two examples: Iyama developed a higher AR theory when $\mathcal{C}$ is a maximal $n$-orthogonal subcategory, see \cite{I}. In this case we show that the simple objects of $\mathcal{H}_{\mathcal{C}}$ correspond to Iyama's higher AR sequences and derive his higher AR duality from the existence of a Serre functor on the derived category $\operatorname{D}^b(\mathcal{H}_{\mathcal{C}})$. The category $\mathcal{O}$ of a complex semi-simple Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ fits into higher AR theory by considering $R$ to be the coinvariant algebra of the Weyl group of $\mathfrak{g}$.