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Bayesian Hypothesis Test for Sparse Support Recovery using Belief Propagation  [PDF]
Jaewook Kang,Heung-No Lee,Kiseon Kim
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a new support recovery algorithm from noisy measurements called Bayesian hypothesis test via belief propagation (BHT-BP). BHT-BP focuses on sparse support recovery rather than sparse signal estimation. The key idea behind BHT-BP is to detect the support set of a sparse vector using hypothesis test where the posterior densities used in the test are obtained by aid of belief propagation (BP). Since BP provides precise posterior information using the noise statistic, BHT-BP can recover the support with robustness against the measurement noise. In addition, BHT-BP has low computational cost compared to the other algorithms by the use of BP. We show the support recovery performance of BHT-BP on the parameters (N; M; K; SNR) and compare the performance of BHT-BP to OMP and Lasso via numerical results.
Spectral Detection on Sparse Hypergraphs  [PDF]
Maria Chiara Angelini,Francesco Caltagirone,Florent Krzakala,Lenka Zdeborová
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We consider the problem of the assignment of nodes into communities from a set of hyperedges, where every hyperedge is a noisy observation of the community assignment of the adjacent nodes. We focus in particular on the sparse regime where the number of edges is of the same order as the number of vertices. We propose a spectral method based on a generalization of the non-backtracking Hashimoto matrix into hypergraphs. We analyze its performance on a planted generative model and compare it with other spectral methods and with Bayesian belief propagation (which was conjectured to be asymptotically optimal for this model). We conclude that the proposed spectral method detects communities whenever belief propagation does, while having the important advantages to be simpler, entirely nonparametric, and to be able to learn the rule according to which the hyperedges were generated without prior information.
The Knowledge Gradient Policy Using A Sparse Additive Belief Model  [PDF]
Yan Li,Han Liu,Warren Powell
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: We propose a sequential learning policy for noisy discrete global optimization and ranking and selection (R\&S) problems with high dimensional sparse belief functions, where there are hundreds or even thousands of features, but only a small portion of these features contain explanatory power. We aim to identify the sparsity pattern and select the best alternative before the finite budget is exhausted. We derive a knowledge gradient policy for sparse linear models (KGSpLin) with group Lasso penalty. This policy is a unique and novel hybrid of Bayesian R\&S with frequentist learning. Particularly, our method naturally combines B-spline basis expansion and generalizes to the nonparametric additive model (KGSpAM) and functional ANOVA model. Theoretically, we provide the estimation error bounds of the posterior mean estimate and the functional estimate. Controlled experiments show that the algorithm efficiently learns the correct set of nonzero parameters even when the model is imbedded with hundreds of dummy parameters. Also it outperforms the knowledge gradient for a linear model.
Detection-Directed Sparse Estimation using Bayesian Hypothesis Test and Belief Propagation  [PDF]
Jaewook Kang,Heung-No Lee,Kiseon Kim
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a sparse recovery algorithm called detection-directed (DD) sparse estimation using Bayesian hypothesis test (BHT) and belief propagation (BP). In this framework, we consider the use of sparse-binary sensing matrices which has the tree-like property and the sampled-message approach for the implementation of BP. The key idea behind the proposed algorithm is that the recovery takes DD-estimation structure consisting of two parts: support detection and signal value estimation. BP and BHT perform the support detection, and an MMSE estimator finds the signal values using the detected support set. The proposed algorithm provides noise-robustness against measurement noise beyond the conventional MAP approach, as well as a solution to remove quantization effect by the sampled-message based BP independently of memory size for the message sampling. We explain how the proposed algorithm can have the aforementioned characteristics via exemplary discussion. In addition, our experiments validate such superiority of the proposed algorithm, compared to recent algorithms under noisy setup. Interestingly the experimental results show that performance of the proposed algorithm approaches that of the oracle estimator as SNR becomes higher.
Bayesian Nonparametric Dictionary Learning for Compressed Sensing MRI  [PDF]
Yue Huang,John Paisley,Qin Lin,Xinghao Ding,Xueyang Fu,Xiao-ping Zhang
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1109/TIP.2014.2360122
Abstract: We develop a Bayesian nonparametric model for reconstructing magnetic resonance images (MRI) from highly undersampled k-space data. We perform dictionary learning as part of the image reconstruction process. To this end, we use the beta process as a nonparametric dictionary learning prior for representing an image patch as a sparse combination of dictionary elements. The size of the dictionary and the patch-specific sparsity pattern are inferred from the data, in addition to other dictionary learning variables. Dictionary learning is performed directly on the compressed image, and so is tailored to the MRI being considered. In addition, we investigate a total variation penalty term in combination with the dictionary learning model, and show how the denoising property of dictionary learning removes dependence on regularization parameters in the noisy setting. We derive a stochastic optimization algorithm based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for the Bayesian model, and use the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for efficiently performing total variation minimization. We present empirical results on several MRI, which show that the proposed regularization framework can improve reconstruction accuracy over other methods.
Nonparametric Sparse Representation  [PDF]
Mahmoud Ramezani Mayiami,Babak Seyfe
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This paper suggests a nonparametric scheme to find the sparse solution of the underdetermined system of linear equations in the presence of unknown impulsive or non-Gaussian noise. This approach is robust against any variations of the noise model and its parameters. It is based on minimization of rank pseudo norm of the residual signal and l_1-norm of the signal of interest, simultaneously. We use the steepest descent method to find the sparse solution via an iterative algorithm. Simulation results show that our proposed method outperforms the existence methods like OMP, BP, Lasso, and BCS whenever the observation vector is contaminated with measurement or environmental non-Gaussian noise with unknown parameters. Furthermore, for low SNR condition, the proposed method has better performance in the presence of Gaussian noise.
Noisy Sparse Subspace Clustering  [PDF]
Yu-Xiang Wang,Huan Xu
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: This paper considers the problem of subspace clustering under noise. Specifically, we study the behavior of Sparse Subspace Clustering (SSC) when either adversarial or random noise is added to the unlabelled input data points, which are assumed to be in a union of low-dimensional subspaces. We show that a modified version of SSC is \emph{provably effective} in correctly identifying the underlying subspaces, even with noisy data. This extends theoretical guarantee of this algorithm to more practical settings and provides justification to the success of SSC in a class of real applications.
Belief change with noisy sensing in the situation calculus  [PDF]
Jianbing Ma,Weiru Liu,Paul Miller
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Situation calculus has been applied widely in artificial intelligence to model and reason about actions and changes in dynamic systems. Since actions carried out by agents will cause constant changes of the agents' beliefs, how to manage these changes is a very important issue. Shapiro et al. [22] is one of the studies that considered this issue. However, in this framework, the problem of noisy sensing, which often presents in real-world applications, is not considered. As a consequence, noisy sensing actions in this framework will lead to an agent facing inconsistent situation and subsequently the agent cannot proceed further. In this paper, we investigate how noisy sensing actions can be handled in iterated belief change within the situation calculus formalism. We extend the framework proposed in [22] with the capability of managing noisy sensings. We demonstrate that an agent can still detect the actual situation when the ratio of noisy sensing actions vs. accurate sensing actions is limited. We prove that our framework subsumes the iterated belief change strategy in [22] when all sensing actions are accurate. Furthermore, we prove that our framework can adequately handle belief introspection, mistaken beliefs, belief revision and belief update even with noisy sensing, as done in [22] with accurate sensing actions only.
Belief propagation for joint sparse recovery  [PDF]
Jongmin Kim,Woohyuk Chang,Bangchul Jung,Dror Baron,Jong Chul Ye
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Compressed sensing (CS) demonstrates that sparse signals can be recovered from underdetermined linear measurements. We focus on the joint sparse recovery problem where multiple signals share the same common sparse support sets, and they are measured through the same sensing matrix. Leveraging a recent information theoretic characterization of single signal CS, we formulate the optimal minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimation problem, and derive a belief propagation algorithm, its relaxed version, for the joint sparse recovery problem and an approximate message passing algorithm. In addition, using density evolution, we provide a sufficient condition for exact recovery.
Nonparametric Bayesian sparse factor models with application to gene expression modeling  [PDF]
David Knowles,Zoubin Ghahramani
Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1214/10-AOAS435
Abstract: A nonparametric Bayesian extension of Factor Analysis (FA) is proposed where observed data $\mathbf{Y}$ is modeled as a linear superposition, $\mathbf{G}$, of a potentially infinite number of hidden factors, $\mathbf{X}$. The Indian Buffet Process (IBP) is used as a prior on $\mathbf{G}$ to incorporate sparsity and to allow the number of latent features to be inferred. The model's utility for modeling gene expression data is investigated using randomly generated data sets based on a known sparse connectivity matrix for E. Coli, and on three biological data sets of increasing complexity.
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