Abstract:
This paper presents a distributed algorithm for finding near optimal dominating sets on grids. The basis for this algorithm is an existing centralized algorithm that constructs dominating sets on grids. The size of the dominating set provided by this centralized algorithm is upper-bounded by $\lceil\frac{(m+2)(n+2)}{5}\rceil$ for $m\times n$ grids and its difference from the optimal domination number of the grid is upper-bounded by five. Both the centralized and distributed algorithms are generalized for the $k$-distance dominating set problem, where all grid vertices are within distance $k$ of the vertices in the dominating set.

Abstract:
A hypergraph is a generalization of a graph where edges can connect any number of vertices. In this paper, we extend the study of locating-dominating sets to hypergraphs. Along with some basic results, sharp bounds for the location-domination number of hypergraphs in general and exact values with specified conditions are investigated. Moreover, locating-dominating sets in some specific hypergraphs are found.

Abstract:
Locating faulty processors in a multiprocessor system gives the motivation for locating-dominating codes. We consider these codes in binary hypercubes and generalize the concept for the situation in which we want to locate more than one malfunctioning processor.

Abstract:
Locating-dominating sets and identifying codes are two closely related notions in the area of separating systems. Roughly speaking, they consist in a dominating set of a graph such that every vertex is uniquely identified by its neighbourhood within the dominating set. In this paper, we study the size of a smallest locating-dominating set or identifying code for graphs of girth at least 5 and of given minimum degree. We use the technique of vertex-disjoint paths to provide upper bounds on the minimum size of such sets, and construct graphs who come close to meet these bounds.

Abstract:
A set $D$ of vertices in a graph $G$ is a locating-dominating set if for every two vertices $u, v$ of $G \setminus D$ the sets $N(u) \cap D$ and $N(v) \cap D$ are non-empty and different. In this paper, we characterize vertices that are in all or in no minimum locating dominating sets in trees. The characterization guarantees that the $\gamma_L$-excellent tree can be recognized in a polynomial time.

Abstract:
A total dominating set of a graph $G$ is a set $D$ of vertices of $G$ such that every vertex of $G$ has a neighbor in $D$. A locating-total dominating set of $G$ is a total dominating set $D$ of $G$ with the additional property that every two distinct vertices outside $D$ have distinct neighbors in $D$; that is, for distinct vertices $u$ and $v$ outside $D$, $N(u) \cap D \ne N(v) \cap D$ where $N(u)$ denotes the open neighborhood of $u$. A graph is twin-free if every two distinct vertices have distinct open and closed neighborhoods. The location-total domination number of $G$, denoted $LT(G)$, is the minimum cardinality of a locating-total dominating set in $G$. It is well-known that every connected graph of order $n \geq 3$ has a total dominating set of size at most $\frac{2}{3}n$. We conjecture that if $G$ is a twin-free graph of order~$n$ with no isolated vertex, then $LT(G) \leq \frac{2}{3}n$. We prove the conjecture for graphs without $4$-cycles. We prove that if $G$ is a twin-free graph of order~$n$, then $LT(G) \leq \frac{3}{4}n$.

Abstract:
Let $G=(V,E)$ be a graph and let $r\ge 1$ be an integer. For a set $D \subseteq V$, define $N_r[x] = \{y \in V: d(x, y) \leq r\}$ and $D_r(x) = N_r[x] \cap D$, where $d(x,y)$ denotes the number of edges in any shortest path between $x$ and $y$. $D$ is known as an $r$-identifying code ($r$-locating-dominating set, respectively), if for all vertices $x\in V$ ($x \in V\backslash D$, respectively), $D_r(x)$ are all nonempty and different. In this paper, we provide complete results for $r$-identifying codes in paths and odd cycles; we also give complete results for 2-locating-dominating sets in cycles.

Abstract:
Some new connections are given between linear orderings and triangular operator algebras. A lexicograhic product is defined for triangular operator algebras and the Jacobson radical of an infinite lexicographic product of upper triangular matrix algebras is determined.

Abstract:
A locating-dominating set of a graph $G$ is a dominating set $D$ of $G$ with the additional property that every two distinct vertices outside $D$ have distinct neighbors in $D$; that is, for distinct vertices $u$ and $v$ outside $D$, $N(u) \cap D \ne N(v) \cap D$ where $N(u)$ denotes the open neighborhood of $u$. A graph is twin-free if every two distinct vertices have distinct open and closed neighborhoods. The location-domination number of $G$, denoted $\gamma_L(G)$, is the minimum cardinality of a locating-dominating set in $G$. It is conjectured [D. Garijo, A. Gonz\'alez and A. M\'arquez. The difference between the metric dimension and the determining number of a graph. Applied Mathematics and Computation 249 (2014), 487--501] that if $G$ is a twin-free graph of order $n$ without isolated vertices, then $\gamma_L(G)\le \frac{n}{2}$. We prove the general bound $\gamma_L(G)\le \frac{2n}{3}$, slightly improving over the $\lfloor\frac{2n}{3}\rfloor+1$ bound of Garijo et al. We then provide constructions of graphs reaching the $\frac{n}{2}$ bound, showing that if the conjecture is true, the family of extremal graphs is a very rich one. Moreover, we characterize the trees $G$ that are extremal for this bound. We finally prove the conjecture for split graphs and co-bipartite graphs.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the \emph{firefighter problem} on a graph $G=(V,E)$ that is either finite or infinite. Suppose that a fire breaks out at a given vertex $v \in V$. In each subsequent time unit, a firefighter protects one vertex which is not yet on fire, and then the fire spreads to all unprotected neighbors of the vertices on fire. The objective of the firefighter is to save as many vertices as possible (if $G$ is finite) or to stop the fire from spreading (for an infinite case). The surviving rate $\rho(G)$ of a finite graph $G$ is defined as the expected percentage of vertices that can be saved when a fire breaks out at a vertex of $G$ that is selected uniformly random. For a finite square grid $P_n \square P_n$, we show that $5/8 + o(1) \le \rho(P_n \square P_n) \le 67243/105300 + o(1)$ (leaving the gap smaller than 0.014) and conjecture that the surviving rate is asymptotic to 5/8. We define the surviving rate for infinite graphs and prove it to be 1/4 for the infinite square grid, even in the case of finitely many initial fires. For the infinite hexagonal grid we provide a winning strategy if two additional vertices can be protected at any point of the process, and we conjecture that the firefighter has no strategy to stop the fire without additional help. We also show how the speed of the spreading fire can be reduced by a constant factor.