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Periodic billiard trajectories in polyhedra  [PDF]
Nicolas Bedaride
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We consider the billiard map inside a polyhedron. We give a condition for the stability of the periodic trajectories. We apply this result to the case of the tetrahedron. We deduce the existence of an open set of tetrahedra which have a periodic orbit of length four (generalization of Fagnano's orbit for triangles), moreover we can study completly the orbit of points along this coding.
On the lower bounds for the number of periodic billiard trajectories in manifolds embedded in Euclidean space  [PDF]
Fedor Duzhin
Mathematics , 2001,
Abstract: In this paper the problem of estimating the number of periodical billiard trajectories is considered. The main result is the theorem on Morse theory for periodical billiard trajectories.
On the multiplicity of non-iterated periodic billiard trajectories  [PDF]
Marco Mazzucchelli
Mathematics , 2010, DOI: 10.2140/pjm.2011.252.181
Abstract: We introduce the iteration theory for periodic billiard trajectories in a compact and convex domain of the Euclidean space, and we apply it to establish a multiplicity result for non-iterated trajectories.
Periodic billiard trajectories in smooth convex bodies  [PDF]
R. N. Karasev
Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s00039-009-0009-3
Abstract: We consider billiard trajectories in a smooth convex body in $\mathbb R^d$ and estimate the number of distinct periodic trajectories that make exactly $p$ reflections per period at the boundary of the body. In the case of prime $p$ we obtain the lower bound $(d-2)(p-1)+2$, which is much better than the previous estimates.
Periodic trajectories in the regular pentagon  [PDF]
Diana Davis,Dmitry Fuchs,Serge Tabachnikov
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We study periodic linear trajectories in the double pentagon and periodic billiard trajectories in the regular pentagon.
Lower bounds on the number of closed trajectories of generalized billiards  [PDF]
Fedor Duzhin
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: Given a domain or, more generally, a Riemannian manifold with boundary, a billiard is the motion of a particle when the field of force is absent. Trajectories of such a motion are geodesics inside the domain; and the particle reflects from the boundary making the angle of incidence equal the angle of reflection. The billiard motion can happen to be a closed (or periodic) one when the billiard ball rebounds k times and then gets to the initial position with the same speed vector as in the beginning. The study of closed billiard trajectories is due to George Birkhoff who in 1927 proved a lower estimate for the number of closed billiard trajectories of a certain period k. We consider the most general case when the billiard ball reflects from an arbitrary submanifold of a Euclidean space. We prove Morse inequalities in this situation and apply them to find a lower estimate for the number of closed billiard trajectories of any prime period in terms of Betti numbers of the given manifold.
Shortest billiard trajectories  [PDF]
Daniel Bezdek,Karoly Bezdek
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper we prove that any convex body of the d-dimensional Euclidean space (d>1) possesses at least one shortest generalized billiard trajectory moreover, any of its shortest generalized billiard trajectories is of period at most d+1. Actually, in the Euclidean plane we improve this theorem as follows. A disk-polygon with parameter r>0 is simply the intersection of finitely many (closed) circular disks of radii r, called generating disks, having some interior point in common in the Euclidean plane. Also, we say that a disk-polygon with parameter r>0 is a fat disk-polygon if the pairwise distances between the centers of its generating disks are at most r. We prove that any of the shortest generalized billiard trajectories of an arbitrary fat disk-polygon is a 2-periodic one. Also, we give a proof of the analogue result for {\epsilon}-rounded disk-polygons obtained from fat disk-polygons by rounding them off using circular disks of radii {\epsilon}>0. Our theorems give partial answers to the very recent question raised by S. Zelditch on characterizing convex bodies whose shortest periodic billiard trajectories are of period 2.
Some remarks on periodic billiard orbits in rational polygons  [PDF]
Michael Boshernitzan,G. A. Galperin,Tyll Krüger,Serge Troubetzkoy
Mathematics , 1994,
Abstract: A polygon is called rational if the angle between each pair of sides is a rational multiple of $\pi.$ The main theorem we will prove is Theorem 1: For rational polygons, periodic points of the billiard flow are dense in the phase space of the billiard flow. This is a strengthening of Masur's theorem, who has shown that any rational polygon has ``many'' periodic billiard trajectories; more precisely, the set of directions of the periodic trajectories are dense in the set of velocity directions $\S^1.$ We will also prove some refinements of Theorem 1: the ``well distribution'' of periodic orbits in the polygon and the residuality of the points $q \in Q$ with a dense set of periodic directions.
On non-periodic and non-dense billiard trajectories Part 1 and Part 2  [PDF]
George William Tokarsky
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: This paper shows that the method of Galperin which had been widely accepted in the literature since 1983 for constructing a non-dense and non-periodic trajectory in a triangle can never work. This is done by showing that all possible examples that can be produced by Galperin's method of which there are infinitely many all produce a periodic trajectory.
Periodic trajectories in the regular pentagon, II  [PDF]
Dmitry Fuchs,Serge Tabachnikov
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: In our recent paper, we studied periodic billiard trajectories in the regular pentagon and closed geodesic on the double pentagon, a translation surface of genus two. In particular, we made a number of conjectures concerning symbolic periodic trajectories. In this paper, we prove two of these conjectures.
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