Abstract:
Cocalibrated G_2-structures and cocalibrated G_2^*-structures are the natural initial values for Hitchin's evolution equations whose solutions define (pseudo)-Riemannian manifolds with holonomy group contained in Spin(7) or Spin_0(3,4), respectively. In this article, we classify which seven-dimensional real Lie algebras with a codimension one Abelian ideal admit such structures. Moreover, we classify the seven-dimensional complex Lie algebras with a codimension one Abelian ideal which admit cocalibrated (G_2)_C-structures.

Abstract:
A contact manifold is a manifold equipped with a distribution of codimension one that satisfies a `maximal non-integrability' condition. A standard example of a contact structure is a strictly pseudoconvex CR manifold, and operators of analytic interest are the tangential Cauchy-Riemann operator and the Szego projector onto its kernel. The Heisenberg calculus is the natural pseudodifferential calculus developed originally for the analysis of these operators. We introduce a `non-integrability' condition for a distribution of arbitrary codimension that directly generalizes the definition of a contact structure. We call such distributions polycontact structures. We prove that the polycontact condition is equivalent to the existence of generalized Szego projections in the Heisenberg calculus, and explore geometrically interesting examples of polycontact structures.

Abstract:
We prove the existence of a minimal (all leaves dense) foliation of codimension one, on every closed manifold of dimension at least 4 whose Euler characteristic is null, in every homotopy class of hyperplanes distributions, in every homotopy class of Haefliger structures, in every differentiability class, under the obvious embedding assumption. The proof uses only elementary means, and reproves Thurston's existence theorem in all dimensions. A parametric version is also established.

Abstract:
Fix a codimension-1 affine Poisson variety $(X,\pi_X)$ in $\mathbb{C}^n$ with an isolated singularity at the origin. We characterize possible extensions of $\pi_X$ to $\mathbb{C}^n$ using the Koszul complex of the Jacobian ideal of $X$. In the particular case of a singular surface, we show that there always exists an extension of $\pi_X$ to $\mathbb{C}^n$.

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate connections between structures present in every generic extension of the universe $V$ and computability theory. We introduce the notion of {\em generic Muchnik reducibility} that can be used to to compare the complexity of uncountable structures; we establish basic properties of this reducibility, and study it in the context of {\em generic presentability}, the existence of a copy of the structure in every extension by a given forcing. We show that every forcing notion making $\omega_2$ countable generically presents some countable structure with no copy in the ground model; and that every structure generically presentble by a forcing notion that does not make $\omega_2$ countable has a copy in the ground model. We also show that any countable structure $\mathcal{A}$ that is generically presentable by a forcing notion not collapsing $\omega_1$ has a countable copy in $V$, as does any structure $\mathcal{B}$ generically Muchnik reducible to a structure $\mathcal{A}$ of cardinality $\aleph_1$. The former positive result yields a new proof of Harrington's result that counterexamples to Vaught's conjecture have models of power $\aleph_1$ with Scott rank arbitrarily high below $\omega_2$. Finally, we show that a rigid structure with copies in all generic extensions by a given forcing has a copy already in the ground model.

Abstract:
We prove a conjecture of Gavril Farkas claiming that for all integers r \geq 2 and g \geq \binom{r+2}{2} there exists a component of the locus \mathcal{S}^r_g of spin curves with a theta characteristic L such that h^0(L) \geq r+1 and h^0(L)\equiv r+1 (mod 2) which has codimension \binom{r+1}{2} inside the moduli space \mathcal{S}_g of spin curves of genus g.

Abstract:
The present paper defines ST-structures (and an extension of these, called STC-structures). The main purpose is to provide concrete relationships between highly expressive concurrency models coming from two different schools of thought: the higher dimensional automata, a \textit{state-based} approach of Pratt and van Glabbeek; and the configuration structures and (in)pure event structures, an \textit{event-based} approach of van Glabbeek and Plotkin. In this respect we make comparative studies of the expressive power of ST-structures relative to the above models. Moreover, standard notions from other concurrency models are defined for ST(C)-structures, like steps and paths, bisimilarities, and action refinement, and related results are given. These investigations of ST(C)-structures are intended to provide a better understanding of the \textit{state-event duality} described by Pratt, and also of the (a)cyclic structures of higher dimensional automata.

Abstract:
An interval in a combinatorial structure S is a set I of points which relate to every point from S I in the same way. A structure is simple if it has no proper intervals. Every combinatorial structure can be expressed as an inflation of a simple structure by structures of smaller sizes -- this is called the substitution (or modular) decomposition. In this paper we prove several results of the following type: An arbitrary structure S of size n belonging to a class C can be embedded into a simple structure from C by adding at most f(n) elements. We prove such results when C is the class of all tournaments, graphs, permutations, posets, digraphs, oriented graphs and general relational structures containing a relation of arity greater than 2. The function f(n) in these cases is 2, \lceil log_2(n+1)\rceil, \lceil (n+1)/2\rceil, \lceil (n+1)/2\rceil, \lceil log_4(n+1)\rceil, \lceil \log_3(n+1)\rceil and 1, respectively. In each case these bounds are best possible.

Abstract:
In this short note we give a complete characterization of a certain class of compact corank one Poisson manifolds, those equipped with a closed one-form defining the symplectic foliation and a closed two-form extending the symplectic form on each leaf. If such a manifold has a compact leaf, then all the leaves are compact, and furthermore the manifold is a mapping torus of a compact leaf. These manifolds and their regular Poisson structures admit an extension as the critical hypersurface of a Poisson b-manifold as we consider in a later paper.

Abstract:
We will describe some results regarding the algorithmic nature of homeomorphism problems for manifolds; in particular, the following theorem. Theorem 1: Every PL or smooth simply connected manifold M^n of dimension n at least 5 can be recognized among simply connected manifolds. That is, there is an algorithm to decide whether or not another simply connected manifold is Top, PL or Diff isomorphic to M. Moreover, an analogous statement is true for embeddings in codimension at least three: one can algorithmically recognize any given embedding of one simply connected manifold in another up to isomorphism of pairs, or up to isotopy, if the codimension of the embedding is not two.