Abstract:
Let $\mathcal{C}_1$ denote the largest connected component of the critical Erd\H{o}s--R\'{e}nyi random graph $G(n,{\frac{1}{n}})$. We show that, typically, the diameter of $\mathcal{C}_1$ is of order $n^{1/3}$ and the mixing time of the lazy simple random walk on $\mathcal{C}_1$ is of order $n$. The latter answers a question of Benjamini, Kozma and Wormald. These results extend to clusters of size $n^{2/3}$ of $p$-bond percolation on any $d$-regular $n$-vertex graph where such clusters exist, provided that $p(d-1)\le1+O(n^{-1/3})$.

Abstract:
We establish conditions on sequences of graphs which ensure that the mixing times of the random walks on the graphs in the sequence converge. The main assumption is that the graphs, associated measures and heat kernels converge in a suitable Gromov-Hausdorff sense. With this result we are able to establish the convergence of the mixing times on the largest component of the Erdos-Renyi random graph in the critical window, sharpening previous results for this random graph model. Our results also enable us to establish convergence in a number of other examples, such as finitely ramified fractal graphs, Galton-Watson trees and the range of a high-dimensional random walk.

Abstract:
We study the strong spatial mixing (decay of correlation) property of proper $q$-colorings of random graph $G(n, d/n)$ with a fixed $d$. The strong spatial mixing of coloring and related models have been extensively studied on graphs with bounded maximum degree. However, for typical classes of graphs with bounded average degree, such as $G(n, d/n)$, an easy counterexample shows that colorings do not exhibit strong spatial mixing with high probability. Nevertheless, we show that for $q\ge\alpha d+\beta$ with $\alpha>2$ and sufficiently large $\beta=O(1)$, with high probability proper $q$-colorings of random graph $G(n, d/n)$ exhibit strong spatial mixing with respect to an arbitrarily fixed vertex. This is the first strong spatial mixing result for colorings of graphs with unbounded maximum degree. Our analysis of strong spatial mixing establishes a block-wise correlation decay instead of the standard point-wise decay, which may be of interest by itself, especially for graphs with unbounded degree.

Abstract:
Exponential random graphs are used extensively in the sociology literature. This model seeks to incorporate in random graphs the notion of reciprocity, that is, the larger than expected number of triangles and other small subgraphs. Sampling from these distributions is crucial for parameter estimation hypothesis testing, and more generally for understanding basic features of the network model itself. In practice sampling is typically carried out using Markov chain Monte Carlo, in particular either the Glauber dynamics or the Metropolis-Hasting procedure. In this paper we characterize the high and low temperature regimes of the exponential random graph model. We establish that in the high temperature regime the mixing time of the Glauber dynamics is $\Theta(n^2 \log n)$, where $n$ is the number of vertices in the graph; in contrast, we show that in the low temperature regime the mixing is exponentially slow for any local Markov chain. Our results, moreover, give a rigorous basis for criticisms made of such models. In the high temperature regime, where sampling with MCMC is possible, we show that any finite collection of edges are asymptotically independent; thus, the model does not possess the desired reciprocity property, and is not appreciably different from the Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi random graph.

Abstract:
We consider the Erdos-Renyi random graph G(n,p) inside the critical window, that is when p=1/n+ lambda*n^{-4/3}, for some fixed lambda in R. Then, as a metric space with the graph distance rescaled by n^{-1/3}, the sequence of connected components G(n,p) converges towards a sequence of continuous compact metric spaces. The result relies on a bijection between graphs and certain marked random walks, and the theory of continuum random trees. Our result gives access to the answers to a great many questions about distances in critical random graphs. In particular, we deduce that the diameter of G(n,p) rescaled by n^{-1/3} converges in distribution to an absolutely continuous random variable with finite mean.

Abstract:
The exponential family of random graphs is one of the most promising class of network models. Dependence between the random edges is defined through certain finite subgraphs, analogous to the use of potential energy to provide dependence between particle states in a grand canonical ensemble of statistical physics. By adjusting the specific values of these subgraph densities, one can analyze the influence of various local features on the global structure of the network. Loosely put, a phase transition occurs when a singularity arises in the limiting free energy density, as it is the generating function for the limiting expectations of all thermodynamic observables. We derive the full phase diagram for a large family of 3-parameter exponential random graph models with attraction and show that they all consist of a first order surface phase transition bordered by a second order critical curve.

Abstract:
We study the critical behavior of inhomogeneous random graphs where edges are present independently but with unequal edge occupation probabilities. The edge probabilities are moderated by vertex weights, and are such that the degree of vertex i is close in distribution to a Poisson random variable with parameter w_i, where w_i denotes the weight of vertex i. We choose the weights such that the weight of a uniformly chosen vertex converges in distribution to a limiting random variable W, in which case the proportion of vertices with degree k is close to the probability that a Poisson random variable with random parameter W takes the value k. We pay special attention to the power-law case, in which P(W\geq k) is proportional to k^{-(\tau-1)} for some power-law exponent \tau>3, a property which is then inherited by the asymptotic degree distribution. We show that the critical behavior depends sensitively on the properties of the asymptotic degree distribution moderated by the asymptotic weight distribution W. Indeed, when P(W\geq k) \leq ck^{-(\tau-1)} for all k\geq 1 and some \tau>4 and c>0, the largest critical connected component in a graph of size n is of order n^{2/3}, as on the Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi random graph. When, instead, P(W\geq k)=ck^{-(\tau-1)}(1+o(1)) for k large and some \tau\in (3,4) and c>0, the largest critical connected component is of the much smaller order n^{(\tau-2)/(\tau-1)}.

Abstract:
Consider the uniform random graph $G(n,M)$ with $n$ vertices and $M$ edges. Erd\H{o}s and R\'enyi (1960) conjectured that the limit $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} \Pr\{G(n,\textstyle{n\over 2}) is planar}} $$ exists and is a constant strictly between 0 and 1. \L uczak, Pittel and Wierman (1994) proved this conjecture and Janson, \L uczak, Knuth and Pittel (1993) gave lower and upper bounds for this probability. In this paper we determine the exact probability of a random graph being planar near the critical point $M=n/2$. For each $\lambda$, we find an exact analytic expression for $$ p(\lambda) = \lim_{n \to \infty} \Pr{G(n,\textstyle{n\over 2}(1+\lambda n^{-1/3})) is planar}.$$ In particular, we obtain $p(0) \approx 0.99780$. We extend these results to classes of graphs closed under taking minors. As an example, we show that the probability of $G(n,\textstyle{n\over 2})$ being series-parallel converges to 0.98003. For the sake of completeness and exposition we reprove in a concise way several basic properties we need of a random graph near the critical point.

Abstract:
Suppose that $\CG$ is a finite, connected graph and $X$ is a lazy random walk on $\CG$. The lamplighter chain $X^\diamond$ associated with $X$ is the random walk on the wreath product $\CG^\diamond = \Z_2 \wr \CG$, the graph whose vertices consist of pairs $(f,x)$ where $f$ is a labeling of the vertices of $\CG$ by elements of $\Z_2$ and $x$ is a vertex in $\CG$. There is an edge between $(f,x)$ and $(g,y)$ in $\CG^\diamond$ if and only if $x$ is adjacent to $y$ in $\CG$ and $f(z) = g(z)$ for all $z \neq x,y$. In each step, $X^\diamond$ moves from a configuration $(f,x)$ by updating $x$ to $y$ using the transition rule of $X$ and then sampling both $f(x)$ and $f(y)$ according to the uniform distribution on $\Z_2$; $f(z)$ for $z \neq x,y$ remains unchanged. We give matching upper and lower bounds on the uniform mixing time of $X^\diamond$ provided $\CG$ satisfies mild hypotheses. In particular, when $\CG$ is the hypercube $\Z_2^d$, we show that the uniform mixing time of $X^\diamond$ is $\Theta(d 2^d)$. More generally, we show that when $\CG$ is a torus $\Z_n^d$ for $d \geq 3$, the uniform mixing time of $X^\diamond$ is $\Theta(d n^d)$ uniformly in $n$ and $d$. A critical ingredient for our proof is a concentration estimate for the local time of random walk in a subset of vertices.

Abstract:
We study the critical behavior of the ferromagnetic Ising model on random trees as well as so-called locally tree-like random graphs. We pay special attention to trees and graphs with a power-law offspring or degree distribution whose tail behavior is characterized by its power-law exponent $\tau>2$. We show that the critical temperature of the Ising model equals the inverse hyperbolic tangent of the inverse of the mean offspring or mean forward degree distribution. In particular, the inverse critical temperature equals zero when $\tau\in(2,3]$ where this mean equals infinity. We further study the critical exponents $\delta, \beta$ and $\gamma$, describing how the (root) magnetization behaves close to criticality. We rigorously identify these critical exponents and show that they take the values as predicted by Dorogovstev, et al. and Leone et al. These values depend on the power-law exponent $\tau$, taking the mean-field values for $\tau>5$, but different values for $\tau\in(3,5)$.