Abstract:
We give in this paper a short semantical proof of the strong normalization for full propositional classical natural deduction. This proof is an adaptation of reducibility candidates introduced by J.-Y. Girard and simplified to the classical case by M. Parigot.

Abstract:
We present a sequent calculus for abstract focussing, equipped with proof-terms: in the tradition of Zeilberger's work, logical connectives and their introduction rules are left as a parameter of the system, which collapses the synchronous and asynchronous phases of focussing as macro rules. We go further by leaving as a parameter the operation that extends a context of hypotheses with new ones, which allows us to capture both classical and intuitionistic focussed sequent calculi. We then define the realisability semantics of (the proofs of) the system, on the basis of Munch-Maccagnoni's orthogonality models for the classical focussed sequent calculus, but now operating at the higher level of abstraction mentioned above. We prove, at that level, the Adequacy Lemma, namely that if a term is of type A, then in the model its denotation is in the (set-theoretic) interpretation of A. This exhibits the fact that the universal quantification involved when taking the orthogonal of a set, reflects in the semantics Zeilberger's universal quantification in the macro rule for the asynchronous phase. The system and its semantics are all formalised in Coq.

Abstract:
We use a many-sorted language to remove commutativity from phase semantics of linear logic and show that pure noncommutative intuitionistic linear propositional logic plus two classical rules enjoys the soundness and complete- ness with respect to completely noncommutative phue semantics.

Abstract:
In this work we provide a statistical form of empirical analysis of classical propositional logic decision methods called SAT solvers. This work is perceived as an empirical counterpart of a theoretical movement, called the enduring scandal of deduction, that opposes considering Boolean Logic as trivial in any sense. For that, we study the predictability of classical logic, which we take to be the distribution of the runtime of its decision process. We present a series of experiments that determines the run distribution of SAT solvers and discover a varying landscape of distributions, following the known existence of a transition of easy-hard-easy cases of propositional formulas. We find clear distributions for the easy areas and the transitions easy-hard and hard-easy. The hard cases are shown to be hard also for the detection of statistical distributions, indicating that several independent processes may be at play in those cases.

Abstract:
In this paper, we present a propositional logic (called mixed logic) containing disjoint copies of minimal, intuitionistic and classical logics. We prove a completeness theorem for this logic with respect to a Kripke semantics. We establish some relations between mixed logic and minimal, intuitionistic and classical logics. We present at the end a sequent calculus version for this logic.

Abstract:
Expansion was invented at the end of the 1970s for calculating principal typings for $\lambda$-terms in type systems with intersection types. Expansion variables (E-variables) were invented at the end of the 1990s to simplify and help mechanise expansion. Recently, E-variables have been further simplified and generalised to also allow calculating type operators other than just intersection. There has been much work on denotational semantics for type systems with intersection types, but none whatsoever before now on type systems with E-variables. Building a semantics for E-variables turns out to be challenging. To simplify the problem, we consider only E-variables, and not the corresponding operation of expansion. We develop a realisability semantics where each use of an E-variable in a type corresponds to an independent degree at which evaluation occurs in the $\lambda$-term that is assigned the type. In the $\lambda$-term being evaluated, the only interaction possible between portions at different degrees is that higher degree portions can be passed around but never applied to lower degree portions. We apply this semantics to two intersection type systems. We show these systems are sound, that completeness does not hold for the first system, and completeness holds for the second system when only one E-variable is allowed (although it can be used many times and nested). As far as we know, this is the first study of a denotational semantics of intersection type systems with E-variables (using realisability or any other approach).

Abstract:
contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. my purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. in my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. as descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. according to standard logic of attitudes (hintikka), human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. i will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. for that purpose i will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and i will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. next i will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. at the end i will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

Abstract:
Expansion was introduced at the end of the 1970s for calculating principal typings for $\lambda$-terms in intersection type systems. Expansion variables (E-variables) were introduced at the end of the 1990s to simplify and help mechanise expansion. Recently, E-variables have been further simplified and generalised to also allow calculating other type operators than just intersection. There has been much work on semantics for intersection type systems, but only one such work on intersection type systems with E-variables. That work established that building a semantics for E-variables is very challenging. Because it is unclear how to devise a space of meanings for E-variables, that work developed instead a space of meanings for types that is hierarchical in the sense of having many degrees (denoted by indexes). However, although the indexed calculus helped identify the serious problems of giving a semantics for expansion variables, the sound realisability semantics was only complete when one single E-variable is used and furthermore, the universal type $\omega$ was not allowed. In this paper, we are able to overcome these challenges. We develop a realisability semantics where we allow an arbitrary (possibly infinite) number of expansion variables and where $\omega$ is present. We show the soundness and completeness of our proposed semantics.

Abstract:
In [17], we introduced a modal logic, called $L$, which combines intuitionistic propositional logic $IPC$ and classical propositional logic $CPC$ and is complete w.r.t. an algebraic semantics. However, $L$ seems to be too weak for Kripke-style semantics. In this paper, we add positive and negative introspection and show that the resulting logic $L5$ has a Kripke semantics. For intermediate logics $I$, we consider the parametrized versions $L5(I)$ of $L5$ where $IPC$ is replaced by $I$. $L5(I)$ can be seen as a classical modal logic for the reasoning about truth in $I$. From our results, we derive a simple method for determining algebraic and Kripke semantics for some specific intermediate logics. We discuss some examples which are of interest for Computer Science, namely the Logic of Here-and-There, G\"odel-Dummett Logic and Jankov Logic. Our method provides new proofs of completeness theorems due to Hosoi, Dummett/Horn and Jankov, respectively.

Abstract:
In this paper we consider a type system with a universal type $\omega$ where any term (whether open or closed, $\beta$-normalising or not) has type $\omega$. We provide this type system with a realisability semantics where an atomic type is interpreted as the set of $\lambda$-terms saturated by a certain relation. The variation of the saturation relation gives a number of interpretations to each type. We show the soundness and completeness of our semantics and that for different notions of saturation (based on weak head reduction and normal $\beta$-reduction) we obtain the same interpretation for types. Since the presence of $\omega$ prevents typability and realisability from coinciding and creates extra difficulties in characterizing the interpretation of a type, we define a class ${\mathbb U}^+$ of the so-called positive types (where $\omega$ can only occur at specific positions). We show that if a term inhabits a positive type, then this term is $\beta$-normalisable and reduces to a closed term. In other words, positive types can be used to represent abstract data types. The completeness theorem for ${\mathbb U}^+$ becomes interesting indeed since it establishes a perfect equivalence between typable terms and terms that inhabit a type. In other words, typability and realisability coincide on ${\mathbb U}^+$. We give a number of examples to explain the intuition behind the definition of ${\mathbb U}^+$ and to show that this class cannot be extended while keeping its desired properties.