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The Call-by-need Lambda Calculus, Revisited  [PDF]
Stephen Chang,Matthias Felleisen
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: The existing call-by-need lambda calculi describe lazy evaluation via equational logics. A programmer can use these logics to safely ascertain whether one term is behaviorally equivalent to another or to determine the value of a lazy program. However, neither of the existing calculi models evaluation in a way that matches lazy implementations. Both calculi suffer from the same two problems. First, the calculi never discard function calls, even after they are completely resolved. Second, the calculi include re-association axioms even though these axioms are merely administrative steps with no counterpart in any implementation. In this paper, we present an alternative axiomatization of lazy evaluation using a single axiom. It eliminates both the function call retention problem and the extraneous re-association axioms. Our axiom uses a grammar of contexts to describe the exact notion of a needed computation. Like its predecessors, our new calculus satisfies consistency and standardization properties and is thus suitable for reasoning about behavioral equivalence. In addition, we establish a correspondence between our semantics and Launchbury's natural semantics.
Lambda Mu Calculus and Duality: Call-by-Name and Call-by-Value  [PDF]
Jér?me Rocheteau
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Under the extension of Curry-Howard's correspondence to classical logic, Gentzen's NK and LK systems can be seen as syntax-directed systems of simple types respectively for Parigot's Lambda Mu Calculus and Curien-Herbelin's Lambda Bar Mu Mu Tidle Calculus. We aim at showing their computational equivalence. We define translations between these calculi. We prove simulation theorems for an undirected evaluation as well as for call-by-name and call-by-value evaluations.
Light Logics and the Call-by-Value Lambda Calculus  [PDF]
Paolo Coppola,Ugo Dal Lago,Simona Ronchi Della Rocca
Computer Science , 2008, DOI: 10.2168/LMCS-4(4:5)2008
Abstract: The so-called light logics have been introduced as logical systems enjoying quite remarkable normalization properties. Designing a type assignment system for pure lambda calculus from these logics, however, is problematic. In this paper we show that shifting from usual call-by-name to call-by-value lambda calculus allows regaining strong connections with the underlying logic. This will be done in the context of Elementary Affine Logic (EAL), designing a type system in natural deduction style assigning EAL formulae to lambda terms.
Proof nets and the call-by-value lambda-calculus
Beniamino Accattoli
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.113.5
Abstract: This paper gives a detailed account of the relationship between (a variant of) the call-by-value lambda calculus and linear logic proof nets. The presentation is carefully tuned in order to realize a strong bisimulation between the two systems: every single rewriting step on the calculus maps to a single step on the nets, and viceversa. In this way, we obtain an algebraic reformulation of proof nets. Moreover, we provide a simple correctness criterion for our proof nets, which employ boxes in an unusual way.
Call-by-value, call-by-name and the vectorial behaviour of the algebraic λ-calculus  [PDF]
Ali Assaf,Alejandro Díaz-Caro,Simon Perdrix,Christine Tasson,Beno? t Valiron
Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.2168/LMCS-10(4:8)2014
Abstract: We examine the relationship between the algebraic lambda-calculus, a fragment of the differential lambda-calculus and the linear-algebraic lambda-calculus, a candidate lambda-calculus for quantum computation. Both calculi are algebraic: each one is equipped with an additive and a scalar-multiplicative structure, and their set of terms is closed under linear combinations. However, the two languages were built using different approaches: the former is a call-by-name language whereas the latter is call-by-value; the former considers algebraic equalities whereas the latter approaches them through rewrite rules. In this paper, we analyse how these different approaches relate to one another. To this end, we propose four canonical languages based on each of the possible choices: call-by-name versus call-by-value, algebraic equality versus algebraic rewriting. We show that the various languages simulate one another. Due to subtle interaction between beta-reduction and algebraic rewriting, to make the languages consistent some additional hypotheses such as confluence or normalisation might be required. We carefully devise the required properties for each proof, making them general enough to be valid for any sub-language satisfying the corresponding properties.
A call-by-value lambda-calculus with lists and control
Robbert Krebbers
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.97.2
Abstract: Calculi with control operators have been studied to reason about control in programming languages and to interpret the computational content of classical proofs. To make these calculi into a real programming language, one should also include data types. As a step into that direction, this paper defines a simply typed call-by-value lambda calculus with the control operators catch and throw, a data type of lists, and an operator for primitive recursion (a la Goedel's T). We prove that our system satisfies subject reduction, progress, confluence for untyped terms, and strong normalization for well-typed terms.
Simulation in the Call-by-Need Lambda-Calculus with Letrec, Case, Constructors, and Seq  [PDF]
Manfred Schmidt-Schau?,David Sabel,Elena Machkasova
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This paper shows equivalence of several versions of applicative similarity and contextual approximation, and hence also of applicative bisimilarity and contextual equivalence, in LR, the deterministic call-by-need lambda calculus with letrec extended by data constructors, case-expressions and Haskell's seq-operator. LR models an untyped version of the core language of Haskell. The use of bisimilarities simplifies equivalence proofs in calculi and opens a way for more convenient correctness proofs for program transformations. The proof is by a fully abstract and surjective transfer into a call-by-name calculus, which is an extension of Abramsky's lazy lambda calculus. In the latter calculus equivalence of our similarities and contextual approximation can be shown by Howe's method. Similarity is transferred back to LR on the basis of an inductively defined similarity. The translation from the call-by-need letrec calculus into the extended call-by-name lambda calculus is the composition of two translations. The first translation replaces the call-by-need strategy by a call-by-name strategy and its correctness is shown by exploiting infinite trees which emerge by unfolding the letrec expressions. The second translation encodes letrec-expressions by using multi-fixpoint combinators and its correctness is shown syntactically by comparing reductions of both calculi. A further result of this paper is an isomorphism between the mentioned calculi, which is also an identity on letrec-free expressions.
A Step-indexed Semantic Model of Types for the Call-by-Name Lambda Calculus  [PDF]
Benedikt Meurer
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Step-indexed semantic models of types were proposed as an alternative to purely syntactic safety proofs using subject-reduction. Building upon the work by Appel and others, we introduce a generalized step-indexed model for the call-by-name lambda calculus. We also show how to prove type safety of general recursion in our call-by-name model.
A Process Calculus with Logical Operators  [PDF]
Yan Zhang,Zhaohui Zhu,Jinjin Zhang,Yong Zhou
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: In order to combine operational and logical styles of specifications in one unified framework, the notion of logic labelled transition systems (Logic LTS, for short) has been presented and explored by L\"{u}ttgen and Vogler in [TCS 373(1-2):19-40; Inform. & Comput. 208:845-867]. In contrast with usual LTS, two logical constructors $\wedge$ and $\vee$ over Logic LTSs are introduced to describe logical combinations of specifications. Hitherto such framework has been dealt with in considerable depth, however, process algebraic style way has not yet been involved and the axiomatization of constructors over Logic LTSs is absent. This paper tries to develop L\"{u}ttgen and Vogler's work along this direction. We will present a process calculus for Logic LTSs (CLL, for short). The language CLL is explored in detail from two different but equivalent views. Based on behavioral view, the notion of ready simulation is adopted to formalize the refinement relation, and the behavioral theory is developed. Based on proof-theoretic view, a sound and ground-complete axiomatic system for CLL is provided, which captures operators in CLL through (in)equational laws.
Call-by-value Termination in the Untyped lambda-calculus  [PDF]
Neil D. Jones,Nina Bohr
Computer Science , 2008, DOI: 10.2168/LMCS-4(1:3)2008
Abstract: A fully-automated algorithm is developed able to show that evaluation of a given untyped lambda-expression will terminate under CBV (call-by-value). The ``size-change principle'' from first-order programs is extended to arbitrary untyped lambda-expressions in two steps. The first step suffices to show CBV termination of a single, stand-alone lambda;-expression. The second suffices to show CBV termination of any member of a regular set of lambda-expressions, defined by a tree grammar. (A simple example is a minimum function, when applied to arbitrary Church numerals.) The algorithm is sound and proven so in this paper. The Halting Problem's undecidability implies that any sound algorithm is necessarily incomplete: some lambda-expressions may in fact terminate under CBV evaluation, but not be recognised as terminating. The intensional power of the termination algorithm is reasonably high. It certifies as terminating many interesting and useful general recursive algorithms including programs with mutual recursion and parameter exchanges, and Colson's ``minimum'' algorithm. Further, our type-free approach allows use of the Y combinator, and so can identify as terminating a substantial subset of PCF.
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