Abstract:
We sample some Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt theorems appearing in mathematics. Along the way, we compare modern techniques used to establish such results, for example, the Composition-Diamond Lemma, Groebner basis theory, and the homological approaches of Braverman and Gaitsgory and of Polishchuk and Positselski. We discuss several contexts for PBW theorems and their applications, such as Drinfeld-Jimbo quantum groups, graded Hecke algebras, and symplectic reflection and related algebras.

Abstract:
We study the canonical U(\n)-valued elliptic differential form, whose projections to different Kac-Moody algebras are key ingredients of the hypergeometric integral solutions of elliptic KZ differential equations and Bethe ansatz constructions. We explicitly determine the coefficients of the projections in the simple Lie algebras A_r, B_r, C_r, D_r in a conveniently chosen Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt basis. As an application we give a new formula for eigenfunctions of Hamiltonians of the Calogero-Moser model.

Abstract:
The singular cochain complex of a topological space is a classical object. It is a Differential Graded algebra which has been studied intensively with a range of methods, not least within rational homotopy theory. More recently, the tools of Auslander-Reiten theory have also been applied to the singular cochain complex. One of the highlights is that by these methods, each Poincare duality space gives rise to a Calabi-Yau category. This paper is a review of the theory.

Abstract:
Differential calculi of Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt type on universal enveloping algebras of Lie algebras g are defined. This definition turns out to be independent of the basis chosen in g. The role of automorphisms of g is explained. It is proved that no differential calculus of Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt type exists on semi-simple Lie algebras. Examples are given, namely gl_n, Abelian Lie algebras, the Heisenberg algebra, the Witt and the Virasoro algebra. Completely treated are the 2-dimensional solvable Lie algebra, and the 3-dimensional Heisenberg algebra.

Abstract:
Let H be a Hopf algebra and let B be a Koszul H-module algebra. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a filtered algebra to be a Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) deformation of the smash product algebra B#H. Many examples of these deformations are given.

Abstract:
Braverman and Gaitsgory gave necessary and sufficient conditions for a nonhomogeneous quadratic algebra to satisfy the Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt property when its homogeneous version is Koszul. We widen their viewpoint and consider a quotient of an algebra that is free over some (not necessarily semisimple) subalgebra. We show that their theorem holds under a weaker hypothesis: We require the homogeneous version of the nonhomogeneous quadratic algebra to be the skew group algebra (semidirect product algebra) of a finite group acting on a Koszul algebra, obtaining conditions for the Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt property over (nonsemisimple) group algebras. We prove our main results by exploiting a double complex adapted from Guccione, Guccione, and Valqui (formed from a Koszul complex and a resolution of the group), giving a practical way to analyze Hochschild cohomology and deformations of skew group algebras in positive characteristic. We apply these conditions to graded Hecke algebras and Drinfeld orbifold algebras (including rational Cherednik algebras and symplectic reflection algebras) in arbitrary characteristic, with special interest in the case when the characteristic of the underlying field divides the order of the acting group.

Abstract:
We study the canonical U(n-)-valued differential form, whose projections to different Kac-Moody algebras are key ingredients of the hypergeometric integral solutions of KZ-type differential equations and Bethe ansatz constructions. We explicitly determine the coefficients of the projections in the simple Lie albegras A_r, B_r, C_r, D_r in a conviniently chosen Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt basis. As a byproduct we obtain results on the combinatorics of rational functions, namely non-trivial identities are proved between certain rational functions with partial symmetries.

Abstract:
I construct some smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds in characteristic two and three that do not lift to characteristic zero. These threefolds are pencils of supersingular K3-surfaces. The construction depends on Moret-Bailly's pencil of abelian surfaces and Katsura's analysis of generalized Kummer surfaces. The threefold in characteristic two turns out to be nonrigid.

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to give a criterion, generalizing the criterion introduced by Priddy for algebras, to verify that an operad is Koszul. We define the notion of a Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt basis in the context of operads. Then we show that an operad having a Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt basis is Koszul. Besides, we obtain that the Koszul dual operad has also a Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt basis. We check that the classical examples of Koszul operads (commutative, associative, Lie) have a Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt basis.

Abstract:
We investigate the possibility to construct bicovariant differential calculi on quantum groups SO_q(N) and Sp_q(N) as a quantization of an underlying bicovariant bracket.We show that, opposite to GL(N) and SL(N)-cases, neither of possible graded SO- and Sp- bicovariant brackets (associated with a quasitriangular r-matrices) obey the Jacobi identity when the differential forms are Lie algebra- valued. The absence of a classical Poisson structure gives an indication that differential algebras describing bicovariant differential calculi on quantum orthogonal and symplectic groups are not of Poincar'e- Birkhoff- -Witt type.