Abstract:
A vertex colouring of a graph is \emph{nonrepetitive on paths} if there is no path $v_1,v_2,...,v_{2t}$ such that v_i and v_{t+i} receive the same colour for all i=1,2,...,t. We determine the maximum density of a graph that admits a k-colouring that is nonrepetitive on paths. We prove that every graph has a subdivision that admits a 4-colouring that is nonrepetitive on paths. The best previous bound was 5. We also study colourings that are nonrepetitive on walks, and provide a conjecture that would imply that every graph with maximum degree $\Delta$ has a $f(\Delta)$-colouring that is nonrepetitive on walks. We prove that every graph with treewidth k and maximum degree $\Delta$ has a $O(k\Delta)$-colouring that is nonrepetitive on paths, and a $O(k\Delta^3)$-colouring that is nonrepetitive on walks.

Abstract:
This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available techniques and is organized by algorithmic paradigm.

Abstract:
State of the art maximum clique algorithms use a greedy graph colouring as a bound. We show that greedy graph colouring can be misleading, which has implications for parallel branch and bound.

Abstract:
We prove exact bounds on the time complexity of distributed graph colouring. If we are given a directed path that is properly coloured with $n$ colours, by prior work it is known that we can find a proper 3-colouring in $\frac{1}{2} \log^*(n) \pm O(1)$ communication rounds. We close the gap between upper and lower bounds: we show that for infinitely many $n$ the time complexity is precisely $\frac{1}{2} \log^* n$ communication rounds.

Abstract:
We solve, in a fully decentralised way (\ie with no message passing), the classic problem of colouring a graph. We propose a novel algorithm that is automatically responsive to topology changes, and we prove that it converges quickly to a proper colouring in $O(N\log{N})$ time with high probability for generic graphs (and in $O(\log{N})$ time if $\Delta=o(N)$) when the number of available colours is greater than $\Delta$, the maximum degree of the graph. We believe the proof techniques used in this work are of independent interest and provide new insight into the properties required to ensure fast convergence of decentralised algorithms.

Abstract:
We introduce a novel representation for the graph colouring problem, called the Integer Merge Model, which aims to reduce the time complexity of graph colouring algorithms. Moreover, this model provides useful information to aid in the creation of heuristics that can make the colouring process even faster. It also serves as a compact definition for the description of graph colouring algorithms. To verify the potential of the model, we use it in the complete algorithm DSATUR, and in two version of an incomplete approximation algorithm; an evolutionary algorithm and the same evolutionary algorithm extended with guiding heuristics. Both theoretical and empirical results are provided investigation is performed to show an increase in the efficiency of solving graph colouring problems. Two problem suites were used for the empirical evidence: a set of practical problem instances and a set of hard problem instances from the phase transition.

Abstract:
The total Betti number of the independence complex of a graph is an intriguing graph invariant. Kalai and Meshulam have raised the question on its relation to cycles and the chromatic number of a graph, and a recent conjecture on that theme was proved by Bonamy, Charbit and Thomasse. We show an upper bound on the total Betti number in terms of the number of vertex disjoint cycles in a graph. The main technique is discrete Morse theory and building poset maps. Ramanujan graphs with arbitrary chromatic number and girth log(n) is a classical construction. We show that any subgraph of them with less than n^0.003 vertices have smaller total Betti number than some planar graph of the same order, although it is part of a graph with high chromatic number.

Abstract:
A proper edge colouring f of a graph G is called acyclic if there are no bichromatic cycles in the graph. The acyclic edge chromatic number or acyclic chromatic index, denoted by , is the minimum number of colours in an acyclic edge colouring of G. In this paper, we discuss the acyclic edge colouring of middle, central, total and line graphs of prime related star graph families. Also exact values of acyclic chromatic indices of such graphs are derived and some of their structural properties are discussed.

Abstract:
In graph theory, Graph Colouring Problem (GCP) is an assignment of colours to vertices of any given graph such that the colours on adjacent vertices are different. The GCP is known to be an optimization and NP-hard problem. Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is a meta-heuristic optimization and stochastic search strategy which is inspired from socio-political phenomenon of imperialistic competition. The ICA contains two main operators: the assimilation and the imperialistic competition. The ICA has excellent capabilities such as high convergence rate and better global optimum achievement. In this research, a discrete version of ICA is proposed to deal with the solution of GCP. We call this algorithm as the DICA. The performance of the proposed method is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA) on seven well-known graph colouring benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the DICA for the benchmarks. This means DICA can produce optimal and valid solutions for different GCP instances.

Abstract:
For integer q>1, we derive edge q-colouring models for (i) the Tutte polynomial of a graph G on the hyperbola H_q, (ii) the symmetric weight enumerator of the set of group-valued q-flows of G, and (iii) a more general vertex colouring model partition function that includes these polynomials and the principal specialization order q of Stanley's symmetric monochrome polynomial. In the second half of the paper we exhibit a family of non-symmetric edge q-colouring models defined on k-regular graphs, whose partition functions for q >= k each evaluate the number of proper edge k-colourings of G when G is Pfaffian.