Abstract:
Using GAP4, we determine the number of ad-nilpotent and abelian ideals of a parabolic subalgebra of a simple Lie algebra of exceptional types E, F or G.

Abstract:
We study the combinatorics of ad-nilpotent ideals of a Borel subalgebra of $sl(n+1,\Bbb C)$. We provide an inductive method for calculating the class of nilpotence of these ideals and formulas for the number of ideals having a given class of nilpotence. We study the relationships between these results and the combinatorics of Dyck paths, based upon a remarkable bijection between ad-nilpotent ideals and Dyck paths. Finally, we propose a (q,t)-analogue of the Catalan number $C_n$. These (q,t)-Catalan numbers count on the one hand ad-nilpotent ideals with respect to dimension and class of nilpotence, and on the other hand admit interpretations in terms of natural statistics on Dyck paths.

Abstract:
We extend the results of Cellini-Papi on the characterizations of nilpotent and abelian ideals of a Borel subalgebra to parabolic subalgebras of a simple Lie algebra. These characterizations are given in terms of elements of the affine Weyl group and faces of alcoves. In the case of a parabolic subalgebra of a classical Lie algebra, we give formulas for the number of these ideals.

Abstract:
In this paper, the main objective is to compare the abelian subalgebras and ideals of maximal dimension for finite-dimensional supersolvable Lie algebras. We characterise the maximal abelian subalgebras of solvable Lie algebras and study solvable Lie algebras containing an abelian subalgebra of codimension 2. Finally, we prove that nilpotent Lie algebras with an abelian subalgebra of codimension 3 contain an abelian ideal with the same dimension, provided that the characteristic of the underlying field is not two. Throughout the paper, we also give several examples to clarify some results.

Abstract:
In this paper, we study the maximal dimension $\alpha(L)$ of abelian subalgebras and the maximal dimension $\beta(L)$ of abelian ideals of m-dimensional 3-Lie algebras $L$ over an algebraically closed field. We show that these dimensions do not coincide if the field is of characteristic zero, even for nilpotent 3-Lie algebras. We then prove that 3-Lie algebras with $\beta(L) = m-2$ are 2-step solvable (see definition in Section 2). Furthermore, we give a precise description of these 3-Lie algebras with one or two dimensional derived algebras. In addition, we provide a classification of 3-Lie algebras with $\alpha(L)=\dim L-2$. We also obtain the classification of 3-Lie algebras with $\alpha(L)=\dim L-1$ and with their derived algebras of one dimension.

Abstract:
Denote by $U_{\mathcal I}({\mathcal H})$ the group of all unitary operators in ${\bf 1}+{\mathcal I}$ where ${\mathcal H}$ is a separable infinite-dimensional complex Hilbert space and ${\mathcal I}$ is any two-sided ideal of ${\mathcal B}({\mathcal H})$. A Cartan subalgebra ${\mathcal C}$ of ${\mathcal I}$ is defined in this paper as a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra of~${\mathcal I}$ and its conjugacy class is defined herein as the set of Cartan subalgebras $\{V{\mathcal C} V^*\mid V\in U_{\mathcal I}({\mathcal H})\}$. For nonzero proper ideals ${\mathcal I}$ we construct an uncountable family of Cartan subalgebras of ${\mathcal I}$ with distinct conjugacy classes. This is in contrast to the by now classical observation of P. de La Harpe who noted that when ${\mathcal I}$ is any of the Schatten ideals, there is precisely one conjugacy class under the action of the full group of unitary operators on~${\mathcal B}$. In the case when ${\mathcal I}$ is a symmetrically normed ideal and is the dual of some Banach space, we show how the conjugacy classes of the Cartan subalgebras of ${\mathcal I}$ become smooth manifolds modeled on suitable Banach spaces. These manifolds are endowed with groups of smooth transformations given by the action of the group $U_{\mathcal I}({\mathcal H})$ on the orbits, and are equivariantly diffeomorphic to each other. We then find that there exists a unique diffeomorphism class of full flag manifolds of $U_{\mathcal I}({\mathcal H})$ and we give its construction.

Abstract:
This paper may be viewed as having two aims. First, we continue our study of algebras of operators on a Hilbert space which have a contractive approximate identity, this time from a more Banach algebraic point of view. Namely, we mainly investigate topics concerned with the ideal structure, and hereditary subalgebras (HSA's), which are in some sense generalization of ideals. Second, we study properties of operator algebras which are hereditary subalgebras in their bidual, or equivalently which are `weakly compact'. We also give several examples answering natural questions that arise in such an investigation.

Abstract:
We prove that the dimensions of coinvariants of certain nilpotent subalgebras of the Virasoro algebra do not change under deformation in the case of irreducible representations of (2,2r+1) minimal models. We derive a combinatorial description of these representations and the Gordon identities from this result.

Abstract:
The study of different types of ideals in non self-adjoint operator algebras has been a topic of recent research. This study focuses on principal ideals in subalgebras of groupoid C*-algebras. An ideal is said to be principal if it is generated by a single element of the algebra. We look at subalgebras of r-discrete principal groupoid C*-algebras and prove that these algebras are principal ideal algebras. Regular canonical subalgebras of almost finite C*-algebras have digraph algebras as their building blocks. The spectrum of almost finite C*-algebras has the structure of an r-discrete principal groupoid and this helps in the coordinization of these algebras. Regular canonical subalgebras of almost finite C*-algebras have representations in terms of open subsets of the spectrum for the enveloping C*-algebra. We conclude that regular canonical subalgebras are principal ideal algebras.

Abstract:
A metric Lie algebra g is a Lie algebra equipped with an inner product. A subalgebra h of a metric Lie algebra g is said to be totally geodesic if the Lie subgroup corresponding to h is a totally geodesic submanifold relative to the left-invariant Riemannian metric defined by the inner product, on the simply connected Lie group associated to g. A nonzero element of g is called a geodesic if it spans a one-dimensional totally geodesic subalgebra. We give a new proof of Kaizer's theorem that every metric Lie algebra possesses a geodesic. For nilpotent Lie algebras, we give several results on the possible dimensions of totally geodesic subalgebras. We give an example of a codimension two totally geodesic subalgebra of the standard filiform nilpotent Lie algebra, equipped with a certain inner product. We prove that no other filiform Lie algebra possesses such a subalgebra. We show that in filiform nilpotent Lie algebras, totally geodesic subalgebras that leave invariant their orthogonal complements have dimension at most half the dimension of the algebra. We give an example of a 6-dimensional filiform nilpotent Lie algebra that has no totally geodesic subalgebra of dimension >2, for any choice of inner product.