Abstract:
In this paper, applying the spinor representation of the electromagnetic field, we present a quantum-mechanical description of waveguides. As an example of application, a potential qubit generated via photon tunneling is discussed.

Abstract:
Epistemological consequences of quantum nonlocality (entanglement) are discussed under the assumption of a universally valid Schr\"odinger equation in the absence of hidden variables. This leads inevitably to a {\it many-minds interpretation}. The recent foundation of quasi-classical neural states in the brain (based on environmental decoherence) permits in principle a formal description of the whole chain of measurement interactions, including the {\it behavior} of conscious observers, without introducing any intermediate classical concepts (for macroscopic "pointer states") or "observables" (for microscopic particle positions and the like) --- thus consistently formalizing Einstein's {\it ganzer langer Weg} from the observed to the observer in quantum mechanical terms.

Abstract:
A possible causal solution to the problem of providing a spacetime description of the transmission of signals in quantum entangled states is described using a `bimetric' spacetime structure, in which the quantum entanglement measurements alter the structure of spacetime. Possible experimental tests to verify the suggested spacetime interpretation of quantum entangled states are proposed.

Abstract:
We propose a general method for introducing extensive characteristics of quantum entanglement. The method relies on polynomials of nilpotent raising operators that create entangled states acting on a reference vacuum state. By introducing the notion of tanglemeter, the logarithm of the state vector represented in a special canonical form and expressed via polynomials of nilpotent variables, we show how this description provides a simple criterion for entanglement as well as a universal method for constructing the invariants characterizing entanglement. We compare the existing measures and classes of entanglement with those emerging from our approach. We derive the equation of motion for the tanglemeter and, in representative examples of up to four-qubit systems, show how the known classes appear in a natural way within our framework. We extend our approach to qutrits and higher-dimensional systems, and make contact with the recently introduced idea of generalized entanglement. Possible future developments and applications of the method are discussed.

Abstract:
It is shown that the statistical conception of quantum mechanics is dynamical but not probabilistic, i.e. the statistical description in quantum mechanics is founded on dynamics. A use of the probability theory, when it takes place, is auxiliary. Attention is drawn to the fact that in the quantum mechanics there are two different objects: an individual object to be statistically described and a statistical average object, which is a result of the statistical description. Identification of the two different objects (a use of the same term for both) is an origin of many known quantum mechanics paradoxes.

Abstract:
Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a "purity constraint". Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.

Abstract:
We report opposite statistical mechanical behaviors of the two major paradigms in which quantum correlation measures are defined, viz., the entanglement-separability paradigm and the information-theoretic one. We show this by considering the ergodic properties of such quantum correlation measures in transverse quantum XY spin-1/2 systems in low dimensions. While entanglement measures are ergodic in such models, the quantum correlation measures defined from an information-theoretic perspective can be nonergodic.

Abstract:
We formulate the statistical mechanical description of liquid systems for both polarizable and polar systems in an electric field in the $\mathbf{E}$-ensemble, which is the pendant to the thermodynamic description in terms of the free energy at constant potential. The contribution of the electric field to the configurational integral $\tilde{Q}_{N}(\mathbf{E})$ in the $\mathbf{E}$-ensemble is given in an exact form as a factor in the integrand of $\tilde{Q}_{N}(\mathbf{E})$. We calculate the contribution of the electric field to the Ornstein-Zernike formula for the scattering function in the $\mathbf{E}$-ensemble. As an application we determine the field induced shift of the critical temperature for polarizable and polar liquids, and show that the shift is upward for polarizable liquids and downward for polar liquids.

Abstract:
We argue from the point of view of statistical inference that the quantum relative entropy is a good measure for distinguishing between two quantum states (or two classes of quantum states) described by density matrices. We extend this notion to describe the amount of entanglement between two quantum systems from a statistical point of view. Our measure is independent of the number of entangled systems and their dimensionality.

Abstract:
A possible solution to the problem of providing a spacetime description of the transmission of signals for quantum entangled states is obtained by using a bimetric spacetime structure, in which quantum entanglement measurements alter the structure of the classical relativity spacetime. A bimetric gravity theory locally has two lightcones, one which describes classical special relativity and a larger lightcone which allows light signals to communicate quantum information between entangled states, after a measurement device detects one of the entangled states. The theory would remove the tension that exists between macroscopic classical, local gravity and macroscopic nonlocal quantum mechanics.