Abstract:
In this paper we develop an approach to conformal geometry of piecewise flat metrics on manifolds. In particular, we formulate the combinatorial Yamabe problem for piecewise flat metrics. In the case of surfaces, we define the combinatorial Yamabe flow on the space of all piecewise flat metrics associated to a triangulated surface. We show that the flow either develops removable singularities or converges exponentially fast to a constant combinatorial curvature metric. If the singularity develops, we show that the singularity is always removable by a surgery procedure on the triangulation. We conjecture that after finitely many such surgery changes on the triangulation, the flow converges to the constant combinatorial curvature metric as time approaches infinity.

Abstract:
This paper studies the combinatorial Yamabe flow on hyperbolic surfaces with boundary. It is proved by applying a variational principle that the length of boundary components is uniquely determined by the combinatorial conformal factor. The combinatorial Yamabe flow is a gradient flow of a concave function. The long time behavior of the flow and the geometric meaning is investigated.

Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a new combinatorial curvature on two and three dimensional triangulated manifolds, which transforms in the same way as that of the smooth scalar curvature under scaling of the metric and could be used to approximate the Gauss curvature on two dimensional manifolds. Then we use the flow method to study the corresponding constant curvature problem, which is called combinatorial Yamabe problem.

Abstract:
This article studies a discrete geometric structure on triangulated manifolds and an associated curvature flow (combinatorial Yamabe flow). The associated evolution of curvature appears to be like a heat equation on graphs, but it can be shown to not satisfy the maximum principle. The notion of a parabolic-like operator is introduced as an operator which satisfies the maximum principle, but may not be parabolic in the usual sense of operators on graphs. A maximum principle is derived for the curvature of combinatorial Yamabe flow under certain assumptions on the triangulation, and hence the heat operator is shown to be parabolic-like. The maximum principle then allows a characterization of the curvature as well was a proof of long term existence of the flow.

Abstract:
In the Chern-Simons formulation of Einstein gravity in 2+1 dimensions the phase space of gravity is the moduli space of flat G-connections, where G is a typically non-compact Lie group which depends on the signature of space-time and the cosmological constant. For Euclidean signature and vanishing cosmological constant, G is the three-dimensional Euclidean group. For this case the Poisson structure of the moduli space is given explicitly in terms of a classical r-matrix. It is shown that the quantum R-matrix of the quantum double D(SU(2)) provides a quantisation of that Poisson structure.

Abstract:
This article is concerned with developing an analytic theory for second order nonlinear parabolic equations on singular manifolds. Existence and uniqueness of solutions in an Lp-framework is established by maximal regularity tools. These techniques are applied to the Yamabe flow. It is proven that the Yamabe flow admits a unique local solution within a class of incomplete initial metrics.

Abstract:
Using the conformally invariant Cotton tensor, we define a geometric flow, the "Cotton flow", which is exclusive to three dimensions. This flow tends to evolve the initial metrics into conformally flat ones, and is somewhat orthogonal to the Yamabe flow, the latter being a flow within a conformal class. We define an entropy functional, and study the flow of nine homogeneous spaces both numerically and analytically. In particular, we show that the arbitrarily deformed homogeneous 3-sphere flows into the round 3-sphere. Two of the nine homogeneous geometries, which are degenerated by the Ricci flow, are left intact by the Cotton flow.

Abstract:
Let (M,g) be a compact oriented Riemannian manifold with an incomplete edge singularity. This article shows that it is possible to evolve g by the Yamabe flow within a class of singular edge metrics. As the main analytic step we establish parabolic Schauder-type estimates for the heat operator on certain H\"older spaces adapted to the singular edge geometry. We apply these estimates to obtain local existence for a variety of quasilinear equations, including the Yamabe flow. This provides a setup for a subsequent discussion of the Yamabe problem using flow techniques in the singular setting.

Abstract:
An n-simplex is said to be n-well-centered if its circumcenter lies in its interior. We introduce several other geometric conditions and an algebraic condition that can be used to determine whether a simplex is n-well-centered. These conditions, together with some other observations, are used to describe restrictions on the local combinatorial structure of simplicial meshes in which every simplex is well-centered. In particular, it is shown that in a 3-well-centered (2-well-centered) tetrahedral mesh there are at least 7 (9) edges incident to each interior vertex, and these bounds are sharp. Moreover, it is shown that, in stark contrast to the 2-dimensional analog, where there are exactly two vertex links that prevent a well-centered triangle mesh in R^2, there are infinitely many vertex links that prohibit a well-centered tetrahedral mesh in R^3.

Abstract:
We present a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional simulation of a nonradiative accretion flow originating in a pressure supported torus. The evolution is controlled by the magnetorotational instability which produces turbulence. The flow forms a nearly Keplerian disk. The total pressure scale height in this disk is comparable to the vertical size of the initial torus. Gas pressure dominates only near the equator; magnetic pressure is more important in the surrounding atmosphere. A magnetically dominated bound outflow is driven from the disk. The accretion rate through the disk exceeds the final rate into the hole, and a hot torus forms inside 10 r_g. Hot gas, pushed up against the centrifugal barrier and confined by magnetic pressure, is ejected in a narrow, unbound, conical outflow. The dynamics are controlled by magnetic turbulence, not thermal convection, and a hydrodynamic alpha model is inadequate to describe the flow. The limitations of two dimensional MHD simulations are also discussed.