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A Standard Form for Incompressible Surfaces in a Handlebody  [PDF]
Linda E. Green
Mathematics , 1996,
Abstract: Let $\F$ be a compact surface and let $I$ be the unit interval. This paper gives a standard form for all 2-sided incompressible surfaces in the 3-manifold $\F \times I$. Since $\F \times I$ is a handlebody when $\F$ has boundary, this standard form applies to incompressible surfaces in a handlebody.
Detection of incompressible surfaces in hyperbolic punctured torus bundles  [PDF]
Henry Segerman
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: Culler and Shalen, and later Yoshida, give ways to construct incompressible surfaces in 3-manifolds from ideal points of the character and deformation varieties, respectively. We work in the case of hyperbolic punctured torus bundles, for which the incompressible surfaces were classified by Floyd and Hatcher. We convert non fiber incompressible surfaces from their form to the form output by Yoshida's construction, and run his construction backwards to give (for non semi-fibers, which we identify) the data needed to construct ideal points of the deformation variety corresponding to those surfaces via Yoshida's construction. We use a result of Tillmann to show that the same incompressible surfaces can be obtained from an ideal point of the character variety via the Culler-Shalen construction. In particular this shows that all boundary slopes of non fiber and non semi-fiber incompressible surfaces in hyperbolic punctured torus bundles are strongly detected.
Limits Of Incompressible Surfaces  [PDF]
Hugh Nelson Howards
Mathematics , 1998,
Abstract: One can embed arbitrarily many disjoint, non-parallel, non-boundary parallel, incompressible surfaces in any three manifold with at least one boundary component of genus two or greater [4]. This paper proves the contrasting, but not contradictory result that although one can sometimes embed arbitrarily many surfaces in a 3-manifold it is impossible to ever embed an infinite number of such surfaces in any compact, orientable 3-manifold M.
Functions on surfaces and incompressible subsurfaces  [PDF]
Sergiy Maksymenko
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: Let $M$ be a smooth connected compact surface, $P$ be either a real line or a circle. This paper proceeds the study of the stabilizers and orbits of smooth functions on $M$ with respect to the right action of the group of diffeomorphisms of $M$. A large class of smooth maps $f:M-->P$ with isolated singularities is considered and it is shown that the general problem of calculation of the fundamental group of the orbit of $f$ reduces to the case when the Euler characteristic of $M$ is non-negative. For the proof of main result incompressible subsurfaces and cellular automorphisms of surfaces are studied.
Spaces of Incompressible Surfaces  [PDF]
Allen Hatcher
Mathematics , 1999,
Abstract: This is a "software upgrade" to a paper originally published in 1976, with cleaner statements and improved proofs. The main result is that, in a Haken 3-manifold, the space of all incompressible surfaces in a single isotopy class is contractible, except when the surface is the fiber of a surface bundle structure, in which case the space of all surfaces isotopic to the fiber has the homotopy type of a circle (the fibers). The main application from the 1976 paper is also rederived, the theorem (proved independently by Ivanov) that the diffeomorphism group of a Haken 3-manifold has contractible components, except in the case of certain Seifert manifolds when the components of the diffeomorphism group have the homotopy type of a circle or torus acting on the manifold.
Knots with infinitely many incompressible Seifert surfaces  [PDF]
Robin T. Wilson
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: We show that a knot in $S^3$ with an infinite number of distinct incompressible Seifert surfaces contains a closed incompressible surface in its complement.
Morse position of knots and closed incompressible surfaces  [PDF]
Makoto Ozawa
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: In this paper, we study on knots and closed incompressible surfaces in the 3-sphere via Morse functions. We show that both of knots and closed incompressible surfaces can be isotoped into a "related Morse position" simultaneously. As an application, we have following results. *Smallness of Montesinos tangles with length two and Kinoshita's theta curve *Classification of closed incompressible and meridionally incompressible surfaces in 2-bridge theta-curve and handcuff graph complements and the complements of links which admit Hopf tangle decompositions.
Incompressible surfaces in link complements  [PDF]
Ying-Qing Wu
Mathematics , 2000,
Abstract: We generalize a theorem of Finkelstein and Moriah and show that if a link $L$ has a $2n$-plat projection satisfying certain conditions, then its complement contains some closed essential surfaces. In most cases these surfaces remain essential after any totally nontrivial surgery on $L$.
Closed incompressible surfaces in the complements of positive knots  [PDF]
Makoto Ozawa
Mathematics , 2001,
Abstract: We show that any closed incompressible surface in the complement of a positive knot is algebraically non-split from the knot, positive knots cannot bound non-free incompressible Seifert surfaces and that the splitability and the primeness of positive knots and links can be seen from their positive diagrams.
Thin position for incompressible surfaces in 3-manifolds  [PDF]
Kazuhiro Ichihara,Makoto Ozawa,J. Hyam Rubinstein
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we give an algorithm to build all compact orientable atoroidal Haken 3-manifolds with tori boundary or closed orientable Haken 3-manifolds, so that in both cases, there are embedded closed orientable separating incompressible surfaces which are not tori. Next, such incompressible surfaces are related to Heegaard splittings. For simplicity, we focus on the case of separating incompressible surfaces, since non-separating ones have been extensively studied. After putting the surfaces into Morse position relative to the height function associated to the Heegaard splittings, a thin position method is applied so that levels are thin or thick, depending on the side of the surface. The complete description of the surface in terms of these thin/thick levels gives a hierarchy. Also this thin/thick description can be related to properties of the curve complex for the Heegaard surface.
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