Abstract:
We construct immersions of trivalent abstract tropical curves in the Euclidean plane and embeddings of all abstract tropical curves in higher dimensional Euclidean space. Since not all curves have an embedding in the plane, we define the tropical crossing number of an abstract tropical curve to be the minimum number of self-intersections, counted with multiplicity, over all its immersions in the plane. We show that the tropical crossing number is at most quadratic in the number of edges and this bound is sharp. For curves of genus up to two, we systematically compute the crossing number. Finally, we use our immersed tropical curves to construct totally faithful nodal algebraic curves via lifting results of Mikhalkin and Shustin.

Abstract:
The algebraic foundation of tropical polynomial algebra provides the framework for the geometric construction of the supplement and the reversal of tropical varieties, thereby inducing a duality of reduced tropical varieties; for classes of tropical hypersurfaces the corresponding point symmetry is obtained for their Newton polytopes and lattice polytopes.

Abstract:
In this paper, we study the correspondence between tropical curves and holomorphic curves. The main subjects in this paper are superabundant tropical curves. First we give an effective combinatorial description of these curves. Based on this description, we calculate the obstructions for appropriate deformation theory, describe the Kuranishi map, and study the solution space of it. The genus one case is solved completely, and the theory works for many of the higher genus cases, too.

Abstract:
Harmonic amoebas are generalizations of amoebas of algebraic curves embedded in complex tori. Introduced in \cite{Kri}, the consideration of such objects suggests to enlarge the scope of classical tropical geometry of curves. In the present paper, we introduce the notion of harmonic morphisms from tropical curves to affine spaces, and show how they can be systematically described as limits of families of harmonic amoeba maps on Riemann surfaces. It extends the fact that tropical curves in affine spaces always arise as degenerations of amoebas of algebraic curves. The flexibility of this machinery gives an alternative proof of Mikhalkin's approximation theorem for regular phase-tropical morphisms to any affine space, as stated e.g. in \cite{Mikh06}. All the approximation results presented here are obtained as corollaries of a theorem on convergence of imaginary normalized differentials on families of Riemann surfaces.

Abstract:
This is mostly* a non-technical exposition of the joint work arXiv:1212.0373 with Caporaso and Payne. Topics include: Moduli of Riemann surfaces / algebraic curves; Deligne-Mumford compactification; Dual graphs and the combinatorics of the compactification; Tropical curves and their moduli; Non-archimedean geometry and comparison. * Maybe the last section is technical.

Abstract:
We introduce the notion of families of n-marked smooth rational tropical curves over smooth tropical varieties and establish a one-to-one correspondence between (equivalence classes of) these families and morphisms from smooth tropical varieties into the moduli space of n-marked abstract rational tropical curves.

Abstract:
In her Ph.D. thesis, Main\`o introduced the notion of enriched structure on stable curves and constructed their moduli space. In this paper we give a tropical notion of enriched structure on tropical curves and construct a moduli space parametrizing these objects. Moreover, we use this construction to give a toric description of the scheme parametrizing enriched structures on a fixed stable curve.

Abstract:
We study the locus of tropical hyperelliptic curves inside the moduli space of tropical curves of genus g. We define a harmonic morphism of metric graphs and prove that a metric graph is hyperelliptic if and only if it admits a harmonic morphism of degree 2 to a metric tree. This generalizes the work of Baker and Norine on combinatorial graphs to the metric case. We then prove that the locus of 2-edge-connected genus g tropical hyperelliptic curves is a (2g-1)-dimensional stacky polyhedral fan whose maximal cells are in bijection with trees on g-1 vertices with maximum valence 3. Finally, we show that the Berkovich skeleton of a classical hyperelliptic plane curve satisfying a certain tropical smoothness condition lies in a maximal cell of genus g called a standard ladder.

Abstract:
We study whether a given tropical curve $\Gamma$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ can be realized as the tropicalization of an algebraic curve whose non-archimedean skeleton is faithfully represented by $\Gamma$. We give an affirmative answer to this question for a large class of tropical curves that includes all trivalent tropical curves, but also many tropical curves of higher valence. We then deduce that for every metric graph $G$ with rational edge lengths there exists a smooth algebraic curve in a toric variety whose analytification has skeleton $G$, and the corresponding tropicalization is faithful. Our approach is based on a combination of the theory of toric schemes over discrete valuation rings and logarithmically smooth deformation theory, expanding on a framework introduced by Nishinou and Siebert.

Abstract:
We establish a canonical isomorphism between two bigraded cohomology theories for polyhedral spaces: Dolbeault cohomology of superforms and tropical cohomology. Furthermore, we prove Poincar\'e duality for cohomology of tropical manifolds, which are polyhedral spaces locally given by Bergman fans of matroids.