Abstract:
We find a simple criterion for the equality $Q_\lambda=Q_{\mu/\nu}$ where $Q_\lambda$ and $Q_{\mu/\nu}$ are Schur's Q-functions on infinitely many variables.

Abstract:
We introduce a new operation on skew diagrams called composition of transpositions, and use it and a Jacobi-Trudi style formula to derive equalities on skew Schur Q-functions whose indexing shifted skew diagram is an ordinary skew diagram. When this skew diagram is a ribbon, we conjecture necessary and sufficient conditions for equality of ribbon Schur Q-functions. Moreover, we determine all relations between ribbon Schur Q-functions; show they supply a Z-basis for skew Schur Q-functions; assert their irreducibility; and show that the non-commutative analogue of ribbon Schur Q-functions is the flag h-vector of Eulerian posets.

Abstract:
Cylindric skew Schur functions, which are a generalisation of skew Schur functions, arise naturally in the study of P-partitions. Also, recent work of A. Postnikov shows they have a strong connection with a problem of considerable current interest: that of finding a combinatorial proof of the non-negativity of the 3-point Gromov-Witten invariants. After explaining these motivations, we study cylindric skew Schur functions from the point of view of Schur-positivity. Using a result of I. Gessel and C. Krattenthaler, we generalise a formula of A. Bertram, I. Ciocan-Fontanine and W. Fulton, thus giving an expansion of an arbitrary cylindric skew Schur function in terms of skew Schur functions. While we show that no non-trivial cylindric skew Schur functions are Schur-positive, we conjecture that this can be reconciled using the new concept of cylindric Schur-positivity.

Abstract:
Reiner, Shaw and van Willigenburg showed that if two skew Schur functions s_A and s_B are equal, then the skew shapes A and B must have the same "row overlap partitions." Here we show that these row overlap equalities are also implied by a much weaker condition than skew Schur equality: that s_A and s_B have the same support when expanded in the fundamental quasisymmetric basis F. Surprisingly, there is significant evidence supporting a conjecture that the converse is also true. In fact, we work in terms of inequalities, showing that if the F-support of s_A contains that of s_B, then the row overlap partitions of A are dominated by those of B, and again conjecture that the converse also holds. Our evidence in favor of these conjectures includes their consistency with a complete determination of all F-support containment relations for F-multiplicity-free skew Schur functions. We conclude with a consideration of how some other quasisymmetric bases fit into our framework.

Abstract:
Recently a new basis for the Hopf algebra of quasisymmetric functions $QSym$, called quasisymmetric Schur functions, has been introduced by Haglund, Luoto, Mason, van Willigenburg. In this paper we extend the definition of quasisymmetric Schur functions to introduce skew quasisymmetric Schur functions. These functions include both classical skew Schur functions and quasisymmetric Schur functions as examples, and give rise to a new poset $\mathcal{L}_C$ that is analogous to Young's lattice. We also introduce a new basis for the Hopf algebra of noncommutative symmetric functions $NSym$. This basis of $NSym$ is dual to the basis of quasisymmetric Schur functions and its elements are the pre-image of the Schur functions under the forgetful map $\chi: NSym \rightarrow Sym$. We prove that the multiplicative structure constants of the noncommutative Schur functions, equivalently the coefficients of the skew quasisymmetric Schur functions when expanded in the quasisymmetric Schur basis, are nonnegative integers, satisfying a Littlewood-Richardson rule analogue that reduces to the classical Littlewood-Richardson rule under $\chi$. As an application we show that the morphism of algebras from the algebra of Poirier-Reutenauer to $Sym$ factors through $NSym$. We also extend the definition of Schur functions in noncommuting variables of Rosas-Sagan in the algebra $NCSym$ to define quasisymmetric Schur functions in the algebra $NCQSym$. We prove these latter functions refine the former and their properties, and project onto quasisymmetric Schur functions under the forgetful map. Lastly, we show that by suitably labeling $\mathcal{L}_C$, skew quasisymmetric Schur functions arise in the theory of Pieri operators on posets.

Abstract:
In this paper we classify all Schur functions and skew Schur functions that are multiplicity free when expanded in the basis of fundamental quasisymmetric functions, termed F-multiplicity free. Combinatorially, this is equivalent to classifying all skew shapes whose standard Young tableaux have distinct descent sets. We then generalize our setting, and classify all F-multiplicity free quasisymmetric Schur functions with one or two terms in the expansion, or one or two parts in the indexing composition. This identifies composition shapes such that all standard composition tableaux of that shape have distinct descent sets. We conclude by providing such a classification for quasisymmetric Schur function families, giving a classification of Schur functions that are in some sense almost F-multiplicity free.

Abstract:
We present a single operation for constructing skew diagrams whose corresponding skew Schur functions are equal. This combinatorial operation naturally generalises and unifies all results of this type to date. Moreover, our operation suggests a closely related condition that we conjecture is necessary and sufficient for skew diagrams to yield equal skew Schur functions.

Abstract:
We prove Stanley's conjecture that, if delta_n is the staircase shape, then the skew Schur functions s_{delta_n / mu} are non-negative sums of Schur P-functions. We prove that the coefficients in this sum count certain fillings of shifted shapes. In particular, for the skew Schur function s_{delta_n / delta_{n-2}}, we discuss connections with Eulerian numbers and alternating permutations.

Abstract:
We consider the skew diagram $\Delta_n$, which is the $180^\circ$ rotation of the staircase diagram $\delta_n = (n,n-1,n-2,...,2,1)$. We create a staircase with bad foundation by augmenting $\Delta_n$ with another skew diagram, which we call the \textit{foundation}. We consider pairs of staircases with bad foundation whose foundations are transposes of one another. Among these pairs, we show that the difference of the corresponding skew Schur functions is Schur-positive in the case when one of the foundations consists of either a one or two row diagram, or a hook diagram.

Abstract:
New sufficient conditions and necessary conditions are developed for two skew diagrams to give rise to the same skew Schur function. The sufficient conditions come from a variety of new operations related to ribbons (also known as border strips or rim hooks). The necessary conditions relate to the extent of overlap among the rows or among the columns of the skew diagram.