Abstract:
Let ${\mathcal H}$ be the group of isotopy classes of orientation preserving homeomorphisms of $S^3$ that preserve a Heegaard splitting of genus two. In this paper, we use a tree in the barycentric subdivision of the disk complex of a handlebody of the splitting to obtain a finite presentation of ${\mathcal H}$.

Abstract:
The mapping class group of a Heegaard splitting is the group of connected components in the set of automorphisms of the ambient manifold that map the Heegaard surface onto itself. For the genus three Heegaard splitting of the 3-torus, we find an eight element generating set for this group. Six of these generators induce generating elements of the mapping class group of the 3-torus and the remaining two are isotopy trivial in the 3-torus.

Abstract:
We consider the group of isotopy classes of automorphisms of the 3-sphere that preserve a spatial graph or a handlebody-knot embedded in it. We prove that the group is finitely presented for an arbitrary spatial graph or a reducible handlebody-knot of genus two. We also prove that the groups for "most" irreducible genus two handlebody-knots are finite.

Abstract:
We show that if the Hempel distance of a Heegaard splitting is larger than three then the mapping class group of the Heegaard splitting is isomorphic to a subgroup of the mapping class group of the ambient 3-manifold. This implies that given two handlebody sets in the curve complex for a surface that are distance at least four apart, the group of automorphisms of the curve complex that preserve both handlebody sets is finite.

Abstract:
We construct simple curves from immersed curves in the setting of handlebodies and Heegaard splittings. We define a measure of complexity we call girth for closed curves in a handlebody. We extend this complexity to Heegaard splittings and pose a conjecture about all Heegaard splittings. We prove a test case of this conjecture. Let S be a compact surface embedded in the boundary of a handlebody H. Then the minimum girth over all curves in S can be achieved by a simple closed curve. We also present algorithms to compute the girth of curves and surfaces.

Abstract:
The mapping class group of a Heegaard splitting is the group of automorphisms of the ambient 3-manifold that take the surface onto itself, modulo isotopies that keep the surface on itself. We characterize the mapping classes that restrict to periodic and reducible automorphisms of the surface.

Abstract:
Weighted circle actions on the quantum Heeqaard 3-sphere are considered. The fixed point algebras, termed quantum weighted Heegaard spheres, and their representations are classified and described on algebraic and topological levels. On the algebraic side, coordinate algebras of quantum weighted Heegaard spheres are interpreted as generalised Weyl algebras, quantum principal circle bundles and Fredholm modules over them are constructed, and the associated line bundles are shown to be non-trivial by an explicit calculation of their Chern numbers. On the topological side, the C*-algebras of continuous functions on quantum weighted Heegaard spheres are described and their K-groups are calculated.

Abstract:
It is known that there are surface bundles of arbitrarily high genus which have genus two Heegaard splittings. The simplest examples are Seifert fibered spaces with the sphere as a base space, three exceptional fibers and which allow horizontal surfaces. We characterize the monodromy maps of all surface bundles with genus two Heegaard splittings and show that each is the result of integral Dehn surgery in one of these Seifert fibered spaces along loops where the Heegaard surface intersects a horizontal surface. (This type of surgery preserves both the bundle structure and the Heegaard splitting.)

Abstract:
We show that every p-fold strictly-cyclic branched covering of a b-bridge link in the 3-sphere admits a p-symmetric Heegaard splitting of genus g=(b-1)(p-1). This gives a complete converse to a result of Birman and Hilden, and gives an intrinsic characterization of p-symmetric Heegaard splittings as p-fold strictly-cyclic branched coverings of links.

Abstract:
The goal of this paper is to offer a comprehensive exposition of the current knowledge about Heegaard splittings of exteriors of knots in the 3-sphere. The exposition is done with a historical perspective as to how ideas developed and by whom. Several new notions are introduced and some facts about them are proved. In particular the concept of a 1/n-primitive meridian. It is then proved that if a knot K in S^3 has a 1/n-primitive meridian; then nK = K#...#K, n-times has a Heegaard splitting of genus nt(K) + n which has a 1-primitive meridian. That is, nK is mu-primitive.