Abstract:
An updated proof of a 1933 theorem of Goeritz, exhibiting a finite set of generators for the group of automorphisms of the 3-sphere that preserve a genus two Heegaard splitting. The group is analyzed via its action on a certain connected 2-complex. (The analogous problem for higher genus Heegaard splittings appears to remain unresolved.)

Abstract:
Let ${\mathcal H}$ be the group of isotopy classes of orientation preserving homeomorphisms of $S^3$ that preserve a Heegaard splitting of genus two. In this paper, we use a tree in the barycentric subdivision of the disk complex of a handlebody of the splitting to obtain a finite presentation of ${\mathcal H}$.

Abstract:
We show that under reasonable conditions, the spines of the handlebodies of a strongly irreducible Heegaard splitting will intersect a closed ball in a graph which is isotopic into the boundary of the ball. This is in some sense a generalization of the results by Scharlemann on how a strongly irreducible Heegaard splitting surface can intersect a ball.

Abstract:
It is known that there are surface bundles of arbitrarily high genus which have genus two Heegaard splittings. The simplest examples are Seifert fibered spaces with the sphere as a base space, three exceptional fibers and which allow horizontal surfaces. We characterize the monodromy maps of all surface bundles with genus two Heegaard splittings and show that each is the result of integral Dehn surgery in one of these Seifert fibered spaces along loops where the Heegaard surface intersects a horizontal surface. (This type of surgery preserves both the bundle structure and the Heegaard splitting.)

Abstract:
Scharlemann constructed a connected simplicial 2-complex $\Gamma$ with an action by the group ${\mathcal H_{2}}$ of isotopy classes of orientation preserving homeomorphisms of $S^3$ that preserve the isotopy class of an unknotted genus 2 handlebody $V$. In this paper we prove that the 2-complex $\Gamma$ is contractible. Therefore we get a finite presentation of ${\mathcal H_{2}}$.

Abstract:
A manifold which admits a reducible genus-$2$ Heegaard splitting is one of the $3$-sphere, $S^2 \times S^1$, lens spaces or their connected sums. For each of those splittings, the complex of Haken spheres is defined. When the manifold is the $3$-sphere, $S^2 \times S^1$ or the connected sum whose summands are lens spaces or $S^2 \times S^1$, the combinatorial structure of the complex has been studied by several authors. In particular, it was shown that those complexes are all contractible. In this work, we study the remaining cases, that is, when the manifolds are lens spaces. We give a precise description of each of the complexes for the genus-$2$ Heegaard splittings of lens spaces. A remarkable fact is that the complexes for most lens spaces are not contractible and even not connected.

Abstract:
Let M be a closed orientable 3-manifold with a negatively curved Riemannian metric. Let {M_i} be a collection of finite regular covers with degree d_i. (1) If the Heegaard genus of M_i grows more slowly than the square root of d_i, then M_i has positive first Betti number for all sufficiently large i. (2) The strong Heegaard genus of M_i cannot grow more slowly than the square root of d_i. (3) If the Heegaard genus of M_i grows more slowly than the fourth root of d_i, then M_i fibres over the circle for all sufficiently large i. These results provide supporting evidence for the Heegaard gradient conjecture and the strong Heegaard gradient conjecture. As a corollary to (3), we give a necessary and sufficient condition for M to be virtually fibred in terms of the Heegaard genus of its finite covers.

Abstract:
Given an element in the first homology of a rational homology 3-sphere $Y$, one can consider the minimal rational genus of all knots in this homology class. This defines a function $\Theta$ on $H_1(Y;\mathbb Z)$, which was introduced by Turaev as an analogue of Thurston norm. We will give a lower bound for this function using the correction terms in Heegaard Floer homology. As a corollary, we show that Floer simple knots in L-spaces are genus minimizers in their homology classes, hence answer questions of Turaev and Rasmussen about genus minimizers in lens spaces.

Abstract:
We provide a new obstruction for a rational homology 3-sphere to arise by Dehn surgery on a given knot in the 3-sphere. The obstruction takes the form of an inequality involving the genus of the knot, the surgery coefficient, and a count of L-structures on the 3-manifold, that is spin-c structures with the simplest possible associated Heegaard Floer group. Applications include an obstruction for two framed knots to yield the same 3-manifold, an obstruction that is particularly effective when working with families of framed knots. We introduce the rational and integral Dehn surgery genera for a rational homology 3-sphere, and use our inequality to provide bounds, and in some cases exact values, for these genera. We also demonstrate that the difference between the integral and rational Dehn surgery genera can be arbitrarily large.

Abstract:
An L-space is a rational homology 3-sphere with minimal Heegaard Floer homology. We give the first examples of hyperbolic L-spaces with no symmetries. In particular, unlike all previously known L-spaces, these manifolds are not double branched covers of links in S^3. We prove the existence of infinitely many such examples (in several distinct families) using a mix of hyperbolic geometry, Floer theory, and verified computer calculations. Of independent interest is our technique for using interval arithmetic to certify symmetry groups and non-existence of isometries of cusped hyperbolic 3-manifolds. In the process, we give examples of 1-cusped hyperbolic 3-manifolds of Heegaard genus 3 with two distinct lens space fillings. These are the first examples where multiple Dehn fillings drop the Heegaard genus by more than one, which answers a question of Gordon.