Abstract:
We prove here that in the complement of the closure of the hyperbolic surface diffeomorphisms, the ones exhibiting a homoclinic tangency are C^1 dense. This represents a step towards the global understanding of dynamics of surface diffeomorphisms.

Abstract:
We obtain some properties of $C^1$ generic surface diffeomorphisms as finiteness of {\em non-trivial} attractors, approximation by diffeomorphisms with only a finite number of {\em hyperbolic} homoclinic classes, equivalence between essential hyperbolicity and the hyperbolicity of all {\em dissipative} homoclinic classes (and the finiteness of spiral sinks). In particular, we obtain the equivalence between finiteness of sinks and finiteness of spiral sinks, abscence of domination in the set of accumulation points of the sinks, and the equivalence between Axiom A and the hyperbolicity of all homoclinic classes. These results improve \cite{A}, \cite{a}, \cite{m} and settle a conjecture by Abdenur, Bonatti, Crovisier and D\'{i}az \cite{abcd}.

Abstract:
We give sufficient conditions for a diffeomorphism of a compact surface to be robustly $N$-expansive and cw-expansive in the $C^r$-topology. We give examples on the genus two surface showing that they need not to be Anosov diffeomorphisms. The examples are axiom A diffeomorphisms with tangencies at wandering points.

Abstract:
We prove that a "positive probability" subset of the boundary of the set of hyperbolic (Axiom A) surface diffeomorphisms with no cycles $\mathcal{H}$ is constituted by Kupka-Smale diffeomorphisms: all periodic points are hyperbolic and their invariant manifolds intersect transversally. Lack of hyperbolicity arises from the presence of a tangency between a stable manifold and an unstable manifold, one of which is not associated to a periodic point. All these diffeomorphisms that we construct lie on the boundary of the same connected component of $\mathcal{H}$.

Abstract:
Let I(p,v) be Bourdon's building, the unique simply-connected 2-complex such that all 2-cells are regular right-angled hyperbolic p-gons and the link at each vertex is the complete bipartite graph K(v,v). We investigate and mostly determine the set of triples (p,v,g) for which there exists a uniform lattice {\Gamma} in Aut(I(p,v)) such that {\Gamma}\I(p,v) is a compact orientable surface of genus g. Surprisingly, the existence of {\Gamma} depends upon the value of v. The remaining cases lead to open questions in tessellations of surfaces and in number theory. Our construction of {\Gamma}, together with a theorem of Haglund, implies that for p>=6, every uniform lattice in Aut(I) contains a surface subgroup. We use elementary group theory, combinatorics, algebraic topology, and number theory.

Abstract:
We show a $C^r$ connecting lemma for area-preserving surface diffeomorphisms and for periodic Hamiltonian on surfaces. We prove that for a generic $C^r$, $r=1, 2, ...$, $\infty$, area-preserving diffeomorphism on a compact orientable surface, homotopic to identity, every hyperbolic periodic point has a transversal homoclinic point. We also show that for a $C^r$, $r=1, 2, ...$, $\infty$ generic time periodic Hamiltonian vector field in a compact orientable surface, every hyperbolic periodic trajectory has a transversal homoclinic point. The proof explores the special properties of diffeomorphisms that are generated by Hamiltonian flows.

Abstract:
The Nielsen-Thurston theory of surface diffeomorphisms shows that useful dynamical information can be obtained about a surface diffeomorphism from a finite collection of periodic orbits.In this paper, we extend these results to homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits of saddle points. These orbits are most readily computed and studied as intersections of unstable and stable manifolds comprising homoclinic or heteroclinic tangles in the surface. We show how to compute a map of a one-dimensional space similar to a train-track which represents the isotopy-stable dynamics of the surface diffeomorphism relative to a tangle. All orbits of this one-dimensional representative are globally shadowed by orbits of the surface diffeomorphism, and periodic, homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits of the one-dimensional representative are shadowed by similar orbits in the surface.By constructing suitable surface diffeomorphisms, we prove that these results are optimal in the sense that the topological entropy of the one-dimensional representative is the greatest lower bound for the entropies of diffeomorphisms in the isotopy class.

Abstract:
We prove that the action of the semigroup generated by a $C^r$ generic pair of area-preserving diffeomorphisms of a compact orientable surface is transitive.

Abstract:
In these lectures we consider how algebraic properties of discrete subgroups of Lie groups restrict the possible actions of those groups on surfaces. The results show a strong parallel between the possible actions of such a group on the circle $S^1$ and the measure preserving actions on surfaces. Our aim is the study of the (non)-existence of actions of lattices in a large class of non-compact Lie groups on surfaces. A definitive analysis of the analogous question for actions on $S^1$ was carried out by \'E. Ghys. Our approach is topological and insofar as possible we try to isolate properties of a group which provide the tools necessary for our analysis. The two key properties we consider are almost simplicity and the existence of a distortion element. Both will be defined and described in the lectures. Our techniques are almost all from low dimensional dynamics. But we are interested in how algebraic properties of a group -- commutativity, nilpotence, etc. affect the possible kinds of dynamics which can occur. For most of the results we will consider groups of diffeomorphisms which preserve a Borel probability measure.

Abstract:
We investigate the representation theory of the polynomial core of the quantum Teichmuller space of a punctured surface S. This is a purely algebraic object, closely related to the combinatorics of the simplicial complex of ideal cell decompositions of S. Our main result is that irreducible finite-dimensional representations of this polynomial core are classified, up to finitely many choices, by group homomorphisms from the fundamental group of the surface to the isometry group of the hyperbolic 3--space. We exploit this connection between algebra and hyperbolic geometry to exhibit new invariants of diffeomorphisms of S.