Abstract:
The Laplace operator in infinite quantum waveguides (e.g., a bent strip or a twisted tube) often has a point-like eigenvalue below the essential spectrum that corresponds to a trapped eigenmode of finite L2 norm. We revisit this statement for resonators with long but finite branches that we call "finite waveguides". Although now there is no essential spectrum and all eigenfunctions have finite L2 norm, the trapping can be understood as an exponential decay of the eigenfunction inside the branches. We describe a general variational formalism for detecting trapped modes in such resonators. For finite waveguides with general cylindrical branches, we obtain a sufficient condition which determines the minimal length of branches for getting a trapped eigenmode. Varying the branch lengths may switch certain eigenmodes from non-trapped to trapped states. These concepts are illustrated for several typical waveguides (L-shape, bent strip, crossing of two stripes, etc.). We conclude that the well-established theory of trapping in infinite waveguides may be incomplete and require further development for being applied to microscopic quantum devices.

Abstract:
The existence of trapped modes in coupled electromagnetic waveguides is experimentally investigated for configurations with different degrees of symmetry supporting hybrid modes. The occurrence of confined solutions in such open geometries is proven to be much more general than demonstrated so far, as predicted by Goldstone and Jaffe [J. Goldstone and R. L. Jaffe, Phys. Rev. B 45, 14100 (1992)]. The identification of the observed modes is based on the numerical modeling of the relative vector fields. The experimental results evidence as an increasing aperture of the configuration can improve the confinement of the mode instead of generating additional leakage channels. In particular, long-lived trapped modes can be easily obtained in geometries with a relevant degree of aperture. Their resonance parameters can compete with those of standard close cavities working at millimeter wavelengths. The role of the symmetry on the properties of these trapped modes is discussed in detail.

Abstract:
We suggest the numerical approach to detect eigenfrequencies of trapped modes in waveguides or guided waves in diffraction gratings. At the same time, the approach works perfectly for computation of systems with finitely many scattering channels. The most attractive example concerns the possibility of control on electron transport in nano-dimensions system consisting of a resonator and finitely many adjoined channels due to external variable electric field.

Abstract:
We introduce a time-dependent model for the generation of joint solitary waveguides by counter-propagating light beams in a photorefractive crystal. Depending on initial conditions, beams form stable steady-state structures or display periodic and irregular temporal dynamics. The steady-state solutions are non-uniform in the direction of propagation and represent a general class of self-trapped waveguides, including counterpropagating spatial vector solitons as a particular case.

Abstract:
We show that periodic optical lattices imprinted in cubic nonlinear media with strong two-photon absorption and localized linear gain landscapes support stable dissipative defect modes in both focusing and defocusing media. Their shapes and transverse extent are determined by the propagation constant that belongs to a gap of the lattice spectrum which, in turn, is determined by the relation between gain and losses. One-hump and two-hump dissipative defect modes are obtained.

Abstract:
We study a Helmholtz-type spectral problem in a two-dimensional medium consisting of a fully periodic background structure and a perturbation in form of a line defect. The defect is aligned along one of the coordinate axes, periodic in that direction (with the same periodicity as the background), and bounded in the other direction. This setting models a so-called "soft-wall" waveguide problem. We show that there are no bound states, i.e., the spectrum of the operator under study contains no point spectrum.

Abstract:
A spatially localized initial condition for an energy-conserving wave equation with periodic coefficients disperses (spatially spreads) and decays in amplitude as time advances. This dispersion is associated with the continuous spectrum of the underlying differential operator and the absence of discrete eigenvalues. The introduction of spatially localized perturbations in a periodic medium leads to defect modes, states in which energy remains trapped and spatially localized. In this paper we study weak, localized perturbations of one-dimensional periodic Schr\"odinger operators. Such perturbations give rise to such defect modes, and are associated with the emergence of discrete eigenvalues from the continuous spectrum. Since these isolated eigenvalues are located near a spectral band edge, there is strong scale-separation between the medium period and the localization length of the defect mode. Bound states therefore have a multi-scale structure: a "carrier Bloch wave" times a "wave envelope", which is governed by a homogenized Schr\"odinger operator with associated effective mass, depending on the spectral band edge which is the site of the bifurcation. Our analysis is based on a reformulation of the eigenvalue problem in Bloch quasi-momentum space, using the Gelfand-Bloch transform and a Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction to a closed equation for the near-band-edge frequency components of the bound state. A rescaling of the latter equation yields the homogenized effective equation for the wave envelope, and approximations to bifurcating eigenvalues and eigenfunctions.

Abstract:
We formulate and demonstrate experimentally the high-resolution spectral method based on Bloch-wave symmetry properties for extracting mode dispersion in periodic waveguides from measurements of near-field profiles. We characterize both the propagating and evanescent modes, and also determine the amplitudes of forward and backward waves in different waveguide configurations, with the estimated accuracy of several percent or less. Whereas the commonly employed spatial Fourier-transform (SFT) analysis provides the wavenumber resolution which is limited by the inverse length of the waveguide, we achieve precise dispersion extraction even for compact photonic structures.

Abstract:
We study a plasmonic coupler involving backward (TM_01) and forward (HE_11) modes of dielectric waveguides embedded into infinite metal. The simultaneously achievable contradirectional energy flows and codirectional wavevectors in different channels lead to a spectral gap, despite the absence of periodic structures along the waveguide. We demonstrate that a complete spectral gap can be achieved in a symmetric structure composed of four coupled waveguides.

Abstract:
Light transport in periodic waveguides coupled to a two-level atom is investigated. By using optical Bloch equations and a photonic modal formalism, we derive semi-analytical expressions for the scattering matrix of one atom trapped in a periodic waveguide. The derivation is general, as the expressions hold for any periodic photonic or plasmonic waveguides. It provides a basic building block to study collective effects arising from photon-mediated multi-atom interactions in periodic waveguides.