Abstract:
We review a class of problems on the borders of topology of torus actions, commutative homological algebra and combinatorial geometry, which is currently being investigated by Victor Buchstaber and the author. The text builds on the lectures delivered on the transformation group courses in Osaka City University and Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. We start with discussing several well-known results and problems on combinatorial geometry of polytopes and simplicial complexes, and then move gradually towards investigating the combinatorial structures associated with spaces acted on by the torus. Parallelly, we set up the required commutative algebra apparatus, including Cohen-Macaulay/Gorenstein rings and Stanley-Reisner face rings of simplicial complexes.

Abstract:
Consider Kashiwara's crystal associated to a highest weight representation of a symmetric Kac-Moody algebra. There is a geometric realization of this object using Nakajima's quiver varieties, but in many particular cases it can also be realized by elementary combinatorial methods. Here we propose a framework for extracting combinatorial realizations from the geometric picture: We construct certain torus actions on the quiver varieties and use Morse theory to index the irreducible components by connected components of the subvariety of torus fixed points. We then discuss the case of affine sl(n). There the fixed point components are just points, and are naturally indexed by multi-partitions. There is some choice in our construction, leading to a family of combinatorial models for each highest weight crystal. Applying this construction to the crystal of the fundamental representation recovers a family of combinatorial realizations recently constructed by Fayers. This gives a more conceptual proof of Fayers' result as well as a generalization to higher level. We also discuss a relationship with Nakajima's monomial crystal.

Abstract:
In the theory of algebraic group actions on affine varieties, the concept of a Kempf-Ness set is used to replace the categorical quotient by the quotient with respect to a maximal compact subgroup. By making use of the recent achievements of "toric topology" we show that an appropriate notion of a Kempf-Ness set exists for a class of algebraic torus actions on quasiaffine varieties (coordinate subspace arrangement complements) arising in the Batyrev-Cox "geometric invariant theory" approach to toric varieties. We proceed by studying the cohomology of these "toric" Kempf-Ness sets. In the case of projective non-singular toric varieties the Kempf-Ness sets can be described as complete intersections of real quadrics in a complex space.

Abstract:
We introduce the notion of a tropical coamoeba which gives a combinatorial description of the Fukaya category of the mirror of a toric Fano stack. We show that the polyhedral decomposition of a real n-torus into (n + 1) permutohedra gives a tropical coamoeba for the mirror of the projective space, and prove a torus-equivariant version of homological mirror symmetry for the projective space. As a corollary, we obtain homological mirror symmetry for toric orbifolds of the projective space.

Abstract:
Toric topology emerged in the end of the 1990s on the borders of equivariant topology, algebraic and symplectic geometry, combinatorics and commutative algebra. It has quickly grown up into a very active area with many interdisciplinary links and applications, and continues to attract experts from different fields. The key players in toric topology are moment-angle manifolds, a family of manifolds with torus actions defined in combinatorial terms. Their construction links to combinatorial geometry and algebraic geometry of toric varieties via the related notion of a quasitoric manifold. Discovery of remarkable geometric structures on moment-angle manifolds led to seminal connections with the classical and modern areas of symplectic, Lagrangian and non-Kaehler complex geometry. A related categorical construction of moment-angle complexes and their generalisations, polyhedral products, provides a universal framework for many fundamental constructions of homotopical topology. The study of polyhedral products is now evolving into a separate area of homotopy theory, with strong links to other areas of toric topology. A new perspective on torus action has also contributed to the development of classical areas of algebraic topology, such as complex cobordism. The book contains lots of open problems and is addressed to experts interested in new ideas linking all the subjects involved, as well as to graduate students and young researchers ready to enter into a beautiful new area.

Abstract:
In this paper we discuss two major conjectures in Mirror Symmetry: Strominger-Yau-Zaslow conjecture about torus fibrations, and the homological mirror conjecture (about an equivalence of the Fukaya category of a Calabi-Yau manifold and the derived category of coherent sheaves on the dual Calabi-Yau manifold). Our point of view on the origin of torus fibrations is based on the standard differential-geometric picture of collapsing Riemannian manifolds as well as analogous considerations for Conformal Field Theories. It seems to give a description of mirror manifolds much more transparent than the one in terms of D-branes. Also we make an attempt to prove the homological mirror conjecture using the torus fibrations. In the case of abelian varieties, and for a large class of Lagrangian submanifolds, we obtain an identification of Massey products on the symplectic and holomorphic sides. Tools used in the proof are of a mixed origin: not so classical Morse theory, homological perturbation theory and non-archimedean analysis.

Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce the notion of maximal actions of compact tori on smooth manifolds and study compact connected complex manifolds equipped with maximal actions of compact tori. We give a complete classification of such manifolds, in terms of combinatorial objects, which are triples $(\Delta, \mathfrak{h}, G)$ of nonsingular complete fan $\Delta$ in $\mathfrak{g}$, complex vector subspace $\mathfrak{h}$ of $\mathfrak{g}^{\mathbb{C}}$ and compact torus $G$ satisfying certain conditions. We also give an equivalence of categories with suitable definitions of morphisms in these families, like toric geometry. We obtain several results as applications of our equivalence of categories; complex structures on moment-angle manifolds, classification of holomorphic nondegenerate $\mathbb{C}^n$-actions on compact connected complex manifolds of complex dimension $n$, and construction of concrete examples of non-K\"{a}hler manifolds.

Abstract:
We introduce the notion of a local torus action modeled on the standard representation (for simplicity, we call it a local torus action). It is a generalization of a locally standard torus action and also an underlying structure of a locally toric Lagrangian fibration. For a local torus action, we define two invariants called a characteristic pair and an Euler class of the orbit map, and prove that local torus actions are classified topologically by them. As a corollary, we obtain a topological classification of locally standard torus actions, which is a generalization of the topological classification of quasi-toric manifolds by Davis and Januszkiewicz and of effective two-dimensional torus actions on four-dimensional manifolds without nontrivial finite stabilizers by Orlik and Raymond. We investigate locally toric Lagrangian fibrations from the viewpoint of local torus actions. We give a necessary and sufficient condition in order that a local torus action becomes a locally toric Lagrangian fibration. Locally toric Lagrangian fibrations are classified by Boucetta and Molino up to fiber-preserving symplectomorphisms. We shall reprove the classification theorem of locally toric Lagrangian fibrations by refining the proof of the classification theorem of local torus actions. We also investigate the topology of a manifold equipped with a local torus action when the Euler class of the orbit map vanishes.

Abstract:
This survey paper describes two geometric representations of the permutation group using the tools of toric topology. These actions are extremely useful for computational problems in Schubert calculus. The (torus) equivariant cohomology of the flag variety is constructed using the combinatorial description of Goresky-Kottwitz-MacPherson, discussed in detail. Two permutation representations on equivariant and ordinary cohomology are identified in terms of irreducible representations of the permutation group. We show how to use the permutation actions to construct divided difference operators and to give formulas for some localizations of certain equivariant classes. This paper includes several new results, in particular a new proof of the Chevalley-Monk formula and a proof that one of the natural permutation representations on the equivariant cohomology of the flag variety is the regular representation. Many examples, exercises, and open questions are provided.

Abstract:
Generalizing the passage from a fan to a toric variety, we provide a combinatorial approach to construct arbitrary effective torus actions on normal, algebraic varieties. Based on the notion of a ``proper polyhedral divisor'' introduced in earlier work, we develop the concept of a ``divisorial fan'' and show that these objects encode the equivariant gluing of affine varieties with torus action. We characterize separateness and completeness of the resulting varieties in terms of divisorial fans, and we study examples like C*-surfaces and projectivizations of (non-split) vector bundles over toric varieties.