Abstract:
We show that any diffeomorphism of a compact manifold can be C1 approximated by diffeomorphisms exhibiting a homoclinic tangency or by diffeomorphisms having a partial hyperbolic structure.

Abstract:
We prove that every $C^1$ generic three-dimensional flow has either infinitely many sinks, or, infinitely many hyperbolic or singular-hyperbolic attractors whose basins form a full Lebesgue measure set. We also prove in the orientable case that the set of accumulation points of the sinks of a $C^1$ generic three-dimensional flow has no dominated splitting with respect to the linear Poincar\'e flow. As a corollary we obtain that every three-dimensional flow can be $C^1$ approximated by flows with homoclinic tangencies or by singular-Axiom A flows.

Abstract:
We construct partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms having semi-local robustly transitive sets with $C^1$-robust cycles of any co-index. These constructions also provide a new method to create $C^2$-robust homoclinic, equidimensional and heterodimensional tangencies of large codimension in dimension $d\geq 4$. The method to generate robust homoclinic and equidimensional tangencies also works in the symplectic setting. Thus, these are mechanisms for the robust non-hyperbolicity of symplectomorphisms in higher dimension.

Abstract:
We obtain some properties of $C^1$ generic surface diffeomorphisms as finiteness of {\em non-trivial} attractors, approximation by diffeomorphisms with only a finite number of {\em hyperbolic} homoclinic classes, equivalence between essential hyperbolicity and the hyperbolicity of all {\em dissipative} homoclinic classes (and the finiteness of spiral sinks). In particular, we obtain the equivalence between finiteness of sinks and finiteness of spiral sinks, abscence of domination in the set of accumulation points of the sinks, and the equivalence between Axiom A and the hyperbolicity of all homoclinic classes. These results improve \cite{A}, \cite{a}, \cite{m} and settle a conjecture by Abdenur, Bonatti, Crovisier and D\'{i}az \cite{abcd}.

Abstract:
Let $f: M \to M$ be a diffeomorphism defined on a compact boundaryless $d$-dimensional manifold $M$, $d\geq 2$. C. Morales has proposed the notion of measure expansiveness. In this note we show that diffeomorphisms in a residual subset far from homoclinic tangencies are measure expansive. We also show that surface diffeomorphisms presenting homoclinic tangencies can be $C^1$-approximated by non-measure expansive diffeomorphisms.

Abstract:
We show a $C^r$ connecting lemma for area-preserving surface diffeomorphisms and for periodic Hamiltonian on surfaces. We prove that for a generic $C^r$, $r=1, 2, ...$, $\infty$, area-preserving diffeomorphism on a compact orientable surface, homotopic to identity, every hyperbolic periodic point has a transversal homoclinic point. We also show that for a $C^r$, $r=1, 2, ...$, $\infty$ generic time periodic Hamiltonian vector field in a compact orientable surface, every hyperbolic periodic trajectory has a transversal homoclinic point. The proof explores the special properties of diffeomorphisms that are generated by Hamiltonian flows.

Abstract:
The Nielsen-Thurston theory of surface diffeomorphisms shows that useful dynamical information can be obtained about a surface diffeomorphism from a finite collection of periodic orbits.In this paper, we extend these results to homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits of saddle points. These orbits are most readily computed and studied as intersections of unstable and stable manifolds comprising homoclinic or heteroclinic tangles in the surface. We show how to compute a map of a one-dimensional space similar to a train-track which represents the isotopy-stable dynamics of the surface diffeomorphism relative to a tangle. All orbits of this one-dimensional representative are globally shadowed by orbits of the surface diffeomorphism, and periodic, homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits of the one-dimensional representative are shadowed by similar orbits in the surface.By constructing suitable surface diffeomorphisms, we prove that these results are optimal in the sense that the topological entropy of the one-dimensional representative is the greatest lower bound for the entropies of diffeomorphisms in the isotopy class.

Abstract:
In the theory of surface diffeomorphisms relative to homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits, it is possible to compute a one-dimensional representative map for any irreducible isotopy class. The topological entropy of this graph representative is equal to the growth rate of the number of essential Nielsen classes of a given period, and hence is a lower bound for the topological entropy of the diffeomorphism. In this paper, we show that this entropy bound is the infemum of the topological entropies of diffeomorphisms in the isotopy class, and give necessary and sufficient conditions for the infemal entropy to be a minimum.

Abstract:
We prove that any diffeomorphism of a compact manifold can be approximated in topology C1 by another diffeomorphism exhibiting a homoclinic bifurcation (a homoclinic tangency or a heterodimensional cycle) or by one which is essentially hyperbolic (it has a finite number of transitive hyperbolic attractors with open and dense basin of attraction).

Abstract:
We prove that every C1 diffeomorphism away from homoclinic tangencies is entropy expansive, with locally uniform expansivity constant. Consequently, such diffeomorphisms satisfy Shub's entropy conjecture: the entropy is bounded from below by the spectral radius in homology. Moreover, they admit principal symbolic extensions, and the topological entropy and metrical entropy vary continuously with the map. In contrast, generic diffeomorphisms with persistent tangencies are not entropy expansive and have no symbolic extensions.