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Effect of Virgin Coconut Meal (VCM) on the Textural, Thermal and Physico Chemical Properties of Biscuits  [PDF]
Yashi Srivastava
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2010.12007
Abstract: Biscuits were prepared by incorporating virgin coconut meal (VCM) into refined wheat flour (maida) at 5-25% level and evaluated for physical, chemical, nutritional, textural and sensory attributes. All the prepared biscuits had high protein and fiber contents as compared to control (100% refined wheat flour based product). With the incorporation of VCM, hardness and toughness of dough increased while there was a decrease in stickiness and adhesiveness values. Incorporation of VCM had a significant effect on color values of biscuits as the concentration of VCM was increased. The values of L* decreased while those for a* and b* increased. Sensory analysis revealed that 15% VCM biscuits were the most acceptable. The Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the onset (To) decreased while end set (Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) increased with the increase level of VCM.
Innovative Integrated Wet Process for Virgin Coconut Oil Production  [PDF]
M.A. Hamid,M.R. Sarmidi,T.H. Mokhtar,W.R.W. Sulaiman
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: During the recent years, increased interest on the development of the Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) has been observed. This is to maximize the benefit of the multifunctional traditionally used coconut. VCO is rich in the Medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs) that have been shown to speed up the metabolism. Almost 50% of the fatty acid in virgin coconut oil is in form of lauric acid. This fatty acid has wide application as wide spectrum of antimicrobial substances against fungi, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of coconut oil shares the similar characteristic with breast milk. The MCFAs in coconut oil are not stored in the body cells but rather processed directly in the liver where they are converted immediately into energy. The present study describes the process for VCO production through integrated wet process. The novel features of this process is the production of virgin coconut oil itself which can minimize the time, cost, energy and man power as well as can maximize the yield and improve the quality of coconut oil. The VCO obtained by this process contribute about 30-40% wt/wt of yield which is 10-20% higher than conventional method. The physical characteristics of VCO along this process shows that the VCO is colorless, retain fresh coconut aroma and sweet coconut taste with the highest content of lauric acid (49.85%). Besides that, the result also indicates the presence of vitamin E VCO. In general, the overall results for sensory analysis were acceptable in terms of aroma and taste of the product.
Studies on the Optimization and Storage Stability of Virgin Coconut Meal Incorporated Instant Sooji Halwa Mix  [PDF]
Mohammed Ayub Khan, Mahesh Chitrashekarchar, Anil Dutt Semwal, Gopal Kumar Sharma
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.38145
Abstract: Virgin Coconut Meal (VCM) was used for the development of instant wheat sooji (semolina) halwa mix with better nutritional attributes. Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with 2 independent variables (sugar and VCM) and 4 responses (lightness, redness, taste and overall acceptability) was used for the optimisation. VCM incorporated instant halwa mix prepared using optimised levels of ingredients contained moisture 0.95%; fat 26.2%; protein 7.65%; total ash 0.86%; fibre 1.02% and received overall acceptability score of 8.5 on a 9 point hedonic scale providing 523.86 K·cal/ 100g. The changes in quality of stored VCM incorporated instant halwa mix packed in polypropylene (PP, 75 μ) and laminates of metallised polyester (MP, 90 μ) were monitored in order to assess the shelf-life. Instant halwa mix remained stable and acceptable for one year in both the packaging materials under ambient temperature conditions (15℃ - 34℃). However, the rate of lipid peroxidation was found to be slightly higher in PP packed samples as compared to MP packed ones. Fatty acid composition of VCM incorporated instant halwa mix remained practically unchanged during storage. Oleic acid was the major fatty acid present in fat extracted from halwa mix followed by palmitic and lauric acids.
Surveillance on Artificial Colours in Different Ready to Eat Foods
Nadia Ashfaq,Tariq Masud
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2002,
Abstract: Different types of ready to eat foods were analyzed for the detection and estimation of the added synthetic food colours. A total of 72 different samples of sweet meats and confectioneries were randomly collected from large and small shops of Rawalpindi Cantt. Quantities of the permitted colouring matter among the tested samples were found within the range of 18-220 ppm. 47.56% of the samples contained non-permitted food colours. Incidences of the use of non-permitted food colours and colours above permissible limits were higher in case of the unorganized food makers.
Preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation  [cached]
Reza Zamiri,B Z Azmi. Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini,et al 
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2011,
Abstract: Reza Zamiri1, B Z Azmi1,2, Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini1, Hossein Abbastabar Ahangar3, A W Zaidan1, M A Mahdi41Department of Physics, 2Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, 3Department of Chemistry, 4Wireless and Photonics Networks Research Center, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: Laser ablation of a silver plate immersed in virgin coconut oil was carried out for fabrication of silver nanoparticles. A Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The virgin coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with well-dispersed, uniform particle diameters that were stable for a reasonable length of time. The particle sizes and volume fraction of nanoparticles inside the solutions obtained at 15, 30, 45 min ablation times were 4.84, 5.18, 6.33 nm and 1.0 × 10-8, 1.6 × 10-8, 2.4 × 10-8, respectively. The presented method for preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil is environmentally friendly and may be considered a green method.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, laser ablation, virgin coconut oil
Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Nicotine Dependence and Relapse
Kusnandar Anggadiredja,Anggraini Barlian,Yangie Dwi Marga Pinang,Dian Anggraeny
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: Nicotine is an addictive substance with detrimental effects on health. Several measures have been developed to help addicts quit smoking, yet the rate of increase in number of smokers does not seem to have slowed down. The current study was aimed to investigate the effect of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) on nicotine dependence and relapse using Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm in rats. The rats were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: place conditioning without drug treatment before nicotine (0.5 mg kg-1, i.p.); place conditioning with oral VCO at 5 mL kg-1 or the reference drug diclofenac (3.2 mg kg-1, i.p.) 30 min prior to each nicotine treatment. The conditioning training lasted for 5 days, followed by conditioning test on the following day. In different batch of rats, the conditioning test continued with a 7-day nicotine-free period and the rats were then challenged on the following day with 0.5 mg kg-1 nicotine intraperitoneally. VCO and diclofenac were given 30 minutes before nicotine challenge to test their effects. Results showed that VCO and diclofenac significantly decreased (p<0.01) the preference to nicotine-paired compartment to those of preconditioning levels in both preference tests. Taken together, results of the present study indicate that VCO prevents nicotine dependence as well as relapse. The results further lay foundation for the development of potent agents for nicotine dependence.
Virgin Coconut Oil Supplementation Prevents Bone Loss in Osteoporosis Rat Model
Zil Hayatullina,Norliza Muhammad,Norazlina Mohamed,Ima-Nirwana Soelaiman
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/237236
Abstract: Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx), and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx
Preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation
Reza Zamiri,B Z Azmi. Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini, et al
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S14005
Abstract: eparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation Original Research (7102) Total Article Views Authors: Reza Zamiri,B Z Azmi. Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini, et al Published Date January 2011 Volume 2011:6 Pages 71 - 75 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S14005 Reza Zamiri1, B Z Azmi1,2, Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini1, Hossein Abbastabar Ahangar3, A W Zaidan1, M A Mahdi4 1Department of Physics, 2Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, 3Department of Chemistry, 4Wireless and Photonics Networks Research Center, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Laser ablation of a silver plate immersed in virgin coconut oil was carried out for fabrication of silver nanoparticles. A Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The virgin coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with well-dispersed, uniform particle diameters that were stable for a reasonable length of time. The particle sizes and volume fraction of nanoparticles inside the solutions obtained at 15, 30, 45 min ablation times were 4.84, 5.18, 6.33 nm and 1.0 × 10-8, 1.6 × 10-8, 2.4 × 10-8, respectively. The presented method for preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil is environmentally friendly and may be considered a green method.
Anti-diabetic effects of cold and hot extracted virgin coconut oil  [PDF]
Mahadevappa Siddalingaswamy, Arunchand Rayaorth, Farhath Khanum
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2011.14016
Abstract: Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been shown to possess insulinotropic effects shown in isolated perfused mouse islet with hypolipidemic effects. Hot extracted virgin coconut oil (HEVCO) has been shown to possess better antioxidant properties than cold extracted virgin coconut oil (CEVCO). These properties were exploited to study the anti-diabetic effects of HEVCO and CEVCO in diabetic rats. Four groups 8 rats each, first group served as non-diabetic control remaining groups were made diabetic and force fed with 2ml alcoholic extracts of commercial coconut oil (CCO), CEVCO and HEVCO for 21 days. Blood glucose once in 5 days, body weight gain, food intake once in a week and water intake and urine output daily, were monitored. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 21 days. The results indicated HEVCO reduced blood glucose and lipids viz total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), High density lipoproteins (HDL), Low and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL+ VLDL) and thiobarbutyric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased the antioxidant status by elevating activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration and decresed lipid peroxidation in liver than CEVCO. These beneficial effects may be attributed to increased polyphenolic and other antioxidants content present in HEVCO.
Hydrolysis of Virgin Coconut Oil Using Immobilized Lipase in a Batch Reactor  [PDF]
Lee Suan Chua,Meisam Alitabarimansor,Chew Tin Lee,Ramli Mat
Enzyme Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/542589
Abstract: Hydrolysis of virgin coconut oil (VCO) had been carried out by using an immobilised lipase from Mucor miehei (Lipozyme) in a water-jacketed batch reactor. The kinetic of the hydrolysis was investigated by varying the parameters such as VCO concentration, enzyme loading, water content, and reaction temperature. It was found that VCO exhibited substrate inhibition at the concentration more than 40% (v/v). Lipozyme also achieved the highest production of free fatty acids, 4.56?mM at 1% (w/v) of enzyme loading. The optimum water content for VCO hydrolysis was 7% (v/v). A relatively high content of water was required because water was one of the reactants in the hydrolysis. The progress curve and the temperature profile of the enzymatic hydrolysis also showed that Lipozyme could be used for free fatty acid production at the temperature up to 50°C. However, the highest initial reaction rate and the highest yield of free fatty acid production were at 45 and 40°C, respectively. A 100 hours of initial reaction time has to be compensated in order to obtain the highest yield of free fatty acid production at 40°C. 1. Introduction Coconut oil, which is derived from the seeds of coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is traditionally processed from the meat of the fruit, called copra. Copra is the dried kernel that produced by smoke drying, sun drying, or a combination of both methods. Therefore, it is usually colorless to pale brownish yellow. Recently, the most welcomed product from coconut is virgin coconut oil (VCO), particularly from the tropical countries. The concept of producing VCO is actually triggered by the well-known virgin olive oil that produced from Mediterranean Basin. The high demand for the virgin oils is definitely due to the preservation of oil composition, including the minor components such as provitamin A, vitamin E, phytosterols, and polyphenols, without aflatoxin contamination and oxidative rancidity from drastic processing and handling approach. These minor components are believed to have the nutritional benefits. By definition, VCO is defined as the oil obtained from the fresh, mature kernel of coconuts by mechanical or natural means without the use of heat, chemical refining, bleaching, and odorizing which does not lead to the alteration of the natural content of the oil [1]. It should also have the moisture content less than 0.1%. Because of the beneficial effects on human health [2, 3] and high saturation degree [1] as well as high oxidative stability of VCO [4], the oil is the great source of oil material for the production of value-added
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