Abstract:
The propagation of a narrow-band signal radiated by a point source in a randomly layered absorbing medium is studied asymptotically in the weak-scattering limit. It is shown that in a disordered stratified medium that is homogeneous on average a pulse is channelled along the layers in a narrow strip in the vicinity of the source. The space-time distribution of the pulse energy is calculated. Far from the source, the shape of wave packets is universal and independent of the frequency spectrum of the radiated signal. Strong localization effects manifest themselves also as a low-decaying tail of the pulse and a strong time delay in the direction of stratification. The frequency-momentum correlation function in a one-dimensional random medium is calculated.

Abstract:
We investigate the oblique incidence of transverse waves on a randomly layered medium in the limit of strong disorder. An approximate method for calculating the inverse localization length based on the assumptions of zero energy flux and complete phase stochastization is presented. Two effects not found at normal incidence have been studied: dependence of the localization length on the polarization, and decrease of the localization length due to the internal reflections from layers with small refractive indexes. The inverse localization length (attenuation rate) for P-polarized radiation is shown to be always smaller than that of S-waves, which is to say that long enough randomly layered sample polarizes transmitted radiation. The localization length for P-polarization depends non-monotonically on the angle of propagation, and under certain conditions turns to infinity at some angle, which means that typical (non-resonant) random realizations become transparent at this angle of incidence (stochastic Brewster effect).

Abstract:
Unidirectional pulse propagation equations [UPPE, Phys. Rev. E 70, 036604 (2004)] have provided a theoretical underpinning for computer-aided investigations into dynamics of high-power ultrashort laser pulses and have been successfully utilized for almost a decade. Unfortunately, they are restricted to applications in bulk media or, with additional approximations, to simple waveguide geometries in which only a few guided modes can approximate the propagating waveform. The purpose of this work is to generalize the directional pulse propagation equations to structures characterized by strong refractive index differences and material interfaces. We also outline a numerical solution framework that draws on the combination of the bulk-media UPPE method with single-frequency beam-propagation techniques.

Abstract:
We study the effects of nonlocal control of pulse propagation in excitable media. As a generic example for an excitable medium the FitzHugh-Nagumo model with diffusion in the activator variable is considered. Nonlocal coupling in form of an integral term with a spatial kernel is added. We find that the nonlocal coupling modifies the propagating pulses of the reaction-diffusion system such that a variety of spatio-temporal patterns are generated including acceleration, deceleration, suppression, or generation of pulses, multiple pulses, and blinking pulse trains. It is shown that one can observe these effects for various choices of the integral kernel and the coupling scheme, provided that the control strength and spatial extension of the integral kernel is appropriate. In addition, an analytical procedure is developed to describe the stability borders of the spatially homogeneous steady state in control parameter space in dependence on the parameters of the nonlocal coupling.

Abstract:
We study, theoretically and experimentally, disorder-induced resonances in randomly-layered samples,and develop an algorithm for the detection and characterization of the effective cavities that give rise to these resonances. This algorithm enables us to find the eigen-frequencies and pinpoint the locations of the resonant cavities that appear in individual realizations of random samples, for arbitrary distributions of the widths and refractive indices of the layers. Each cavity is formed in a region whose size is a few localization lengths. Its eigen-frequency is independent of the location inside the sample, and does not change if the total length of the sample is increased by, for example, adding more scatterers on the sides. We show that the total number of cavities, $N_{\mathrm{cav}}$, and resonances, $N_{\mathrm{res}}$, per unit frequency interval is uniquely determined by the size of the disordered system and is independent of the strength of the disorder. In an active, amplifying medium, part of the cavities may host lasing modes whose number is less than $N_{\mathrm{res}}$. The ensemble of lasing cavities behaves as distributed feedback lasers, provided that the gain of the medium exceeds the lasing threshold, which is specific for each cavity. We present the results of experiments carried out with single-mode optical fibers with gain and randomly-located resonant Bragg reflectors (periodic gratings). When the fiber was illuminated by a pumping laser with an intensity high enough to overcome the lasing threshold, the resonances revealed themselves by peaks in the emission spectrum. Our experimental results are in a good agreement with the theory presented here.

Abstract:
The propagation of light-pulse with negative group-velocity in a nonlinear medium is studied theoretically. We show that the necessary conditions for these effects to be observable are realized in a three-level $\Lambda$-system interacting with a linearly polarized laser beam in the presence of a static magnetic field. In low power regime, when all other nonlinear processes are negligible, the light-induced Zeeman coherence cancels the resonant absorption of the medium almost completely, but preserves the dispersion anomalous and very high. As a result, a superluminal light pulse propagation can be observed in the sense that the peak of the transmitted pulse exits the medium before the peak of the incident pulse enters. There is no violation of causality and energy conservation. Moreover, the superluminal effects are prominently manifested in the reshaping of pulse, which is caused by the intensity-dependent pulse velocity. Unlike the shock wave formation in a nonlinear medium with normal dispersion, here, the self-steepening of the pulse trailing edge takes place due to the fact that the more intense parts of the pulse travel slower. The predicted effect can be easily observed in the well known schemes employed for studying of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. The upper bound of sample length is found from the criterion that the pulse self-steepening and group-advance time are observable without pulse distortion caused by the group-velocity dispersion.

Abstract:
Maxwell's equations are cast in the form of the Schr\"{o}dinger equation. The Lanczos propagation method is used in combination with the fast Fourier pseudospectral method to solve the initial value problem. As a result, a time-domain, unconditionally stable, and highly efficient numerical algorithm is obtained for the propagation and scattering of broad-band electromagnetic pulses in dispersive and absorbing media. As compared to conventional finite-difference time-domain methods, an important advantage of the proposed algorithm is a dynamical control of accuracy: Variable time steps or variable computational costs per time step with error control are possible. The method is illustrated with numerical simulations of extraordinary transmission and reflection in metal and dielectric gratings with rectangular and cylindrical geometry.

Abstract:
The dynamic evolutions of full Gaussian and particularly the truncated Gaussian pulses in dispersive Lorentz media are studied numerically in detail. The observed qualitative phenomena lead to revised interpretation regarding both Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursors. Neither strict Sommerfeld nor Brillouin precursor is present for the case of an incident full Gaussian pulse for any finite propagation distance. In addition, the Brillouin effect can be separated into a tail and a forerunner depending on the turn-on point of the initial pulse. Moreover, the essence of an artificial precursor is discussed, which deserves caution when handling the high dynamic range problems by numerical algorithm.

Abstract:
We consider adiabatic interaction of five-level atomic systems and their media with four short laser pulses under the condition of all two-photon detunings being zero. We derive analytical expressions for eigenvalues of the system's Hamiltonian and determine conditions of adiabaticity for both the atom and the medium. We analyse, in detail, the system's behaviour when the eigenvalue with non-vanishing energy is realized. As distinct from the usual dark state of a five-level system (corresponding to zero eigenvalue), which is a superposition of three states, in our case the superposition of four states does work. This seemingly unfavourable case is nevertheless demonstrated to imitate completely a three-level system not only for a single atom but also in the medium, since the propagation equations are also split into those for three- and two-level media separately. We show that, under certain conditions, all the coherent effects observed in three-level media, such as population transfer, light slowing, light storage, and so on, may efficiently be realized in five-level media. This has an important advantage that the light storage can be performed twice in the same medium, i.e., the second pulse can be stored without retrieving the first one, and then the two pulses can be retrieved in any desired sequence.

Abstract:
We demonstrate numerically a method of focusing two-photon field inside one-dimensional random media. The approach is based on coherent control of backscattering achieved by adaptive spectral pulse shaping. The spectral phases of a femtosecond laser pulse are adjusted for the constructive interference of its backward-traveling components, resulting in an enhanced reflection from within the random system. A delayed forward-propagating second pulse overlaps with the controlled reflection, increasing the inter-pulse multi-photon field at a location determined by the delay between the two pulses. The technique is shown to be robust against the variations of the disorder, and to work with realistic pulse shaping parameters, hence enabling applications in controlling random lasing and multi-photon imaging in scattering materials.