Abstract:
We show that the reduced Hochschild homology of a DG open Frobenius algebra has the natural structure of a Batalin-Vilkovisky coalgebra, and the reduced cyclic homology has the natural structure of a gravity coalgebra. This gives an algebraic model for a Batalin-Vilkovisky coalgebra structure on the reduced homology of the free loop space of a simply connected closed oriented manifold, and a gravity coalgebra structure on the reduced equivariant homology.

Abstract:
Kontsevich's formality theorem states that the differential graded Lie algebra of multidifferential operators on a manifold M is L-infinity-quasi-isomorphic to its cohomology. The construction of the L-infinity map is given in terms of integrals of differential forms on configuration spaces of points in the upper half-plane. Here we consider configuration spaces of points in the disk and work equivariantly with respect to the rotation group. This leads to considering the differential graded Lie algebra of multivector fields endowed with a divergence operator. In the case of R^d with standard volume form, we obtain an L-infinity morphism of modules over this differential graded Lie algebra from cyclic chains of the algebra of functions to multivector fields. As a first application we give a construction of traces on algebras of functions with star-products associated with unimodular Poisson structures. The construction is based on the Batalin--Vilkovisky quantization of the Poisson sigma model on the disk and in particular on the treatment of its zero modes.

Abstract:
Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras are a new type of algebraic structure on graded vector spaces, which first arose in the work of Batalin and Vilkovisky on gauge fixing in quantum field theory. In this article, we show that there is a natural structure of a Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra on the cohomology of a topological field theory in two dimensions. Lian and Zuckerman have constructed this Batalin-Vilkovisky structure, in the setting of topological chiral field theories, and shown that the structure is non-trivial in two-dimensional string theory. Our approach is to use algebraic topology, whereas their proofs have a more algebraic character.

Abstract:
We show that a model of chain complex of the free loop space of a $C^\infty$-manifold, which is proposed in arxiv:1404.0153, admits an action of a certain dg operad. This is a chain level structure under the Chas-Sullivan BV structure on loop space homology. Our dg operad is a variant of the cacti operad, and we introduce combinatorial objects called "decorated cacti" to define it. We also define a chain level Gerstenhaber structure on Hochschild cochains of any differential graded algebra. Applied to the dga of differential forms, this structure is compatible with our chain level structure in string topology.

Abstract:
An invariant definition of the operator $\Delta $ of the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism is proposed. It is defined as the divergence of a Hamiltonian vector field with an odd Poisson bracket (antibracket). Its main properties, which follow from this definition, as well as an example of realization on K\"ahlerian supermanifolds, are considered. The geometrical meaning of the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism is discussed.

Abstract:
A Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism is most general framework to construct consistent quantum field theories. Its mathematical structure is called {\it a Batalin-Vilkovisky structure}. First we explain rather mathematical setting of a Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. Next, we consider deformation theory of a Batalin-Vilkovisky structure. Especially, we consider deformation of topological sigma models in any dimension, which is closely related to deformation theories in mathematics, including deformation from commutative geometry to noncommutative geometry. We obtain a series of new nontrivial topological sigma models and we find these models have the Batalin-Vilkovisky structures based on a series of new algebroids.

Abstract:
We show that a graded commutative algebra A with any square zero odd differential operator is a natural generalization of a Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra. While such an operator of order 2 defines a Gerstenhaber (Lie) algebra structure on A, an operator of an order higher than 2 (Koszul-Akman definition) leads to the structure of a strongly homotopy Lie algebra (L$_\infty$-algebra) on A. This allows us to give a definition of a Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra up to homotopy. We also make a conjecture which is a generalization of the formality theorem of Kontsevich to the Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra level.

Abstract:
The Batalin-Vilkovisky master equations, both classical and quantum, are precisely the integrability equations for deformations of algebras and differential algebras respectively. This is not a coincidence; the Batalin-Vilkovisky approach is here translated into the language of deformation theory.

Abstract:
The present paper is devoted to the study of geometry of Batalin-Vilkovisky quantization procedure. The main mathematical objects under consideration are P-manifolds and SP-manifolds (supermanifolds provided with an odd symplectic structure and, in the case of SP-manifolds, with a volume element). The Batalin-Vilkovisky procedure leads to consideration of integrals of the superharmonic functions over Lagrangian submanifolds. The choice of Lagrangian submanifold can be interpreted as a choice of gauge condition; Batalin and Vilkovisky proved that in some sense their procedure is gauge independent. We prove much more general theorem of the same kind. This theorem leads to a conjecture that one can modify the quantization procedure in such a way as to avoid the use of the notion of Lagrangian submanifold. In the next paper we will show that this is really so at least in the semiclassical approximation. Namely the physical quantities can be expressed as integrals over some set of critical points of solution S to the master equation with the integrand expressed in terms of Reidemeister torsion. This leads to a simplification of quantization procedure and to the possibility to get rigorous results also in the infinite-dimensional case. The present paper contains also a compete classification of P-manifolds and SP-manifolds. The classification is interesting by itself, but in this paper it plays also a role of an important tool in the proof of other results.