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L-Homoarginine Accumulation in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Dry Seeds. A Preliminary Survey  [PDF]
Angela Rose Piergiovanni, Anna Damascelli
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.23028
Abstract: Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) has great agronomic potential as grain and forage legume, and presently is con-sidered as a model crop for sustainable agriculture. However, the development into an important food legume has been hin- dered by the presence of the neurotoxic amino acid β-N-Oxalyl-α, β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP). Recent studies reported that homoarginine (Har) can counteract this toxic action. This research was undertaken to shed light on the variation of Har amount within grass pea. The influence of the environment and of the year-to-year variation of cli- matic conditions was also investigated. Seven Italian grass pea ecotypes were evaluated for two subsequent growing seasons in two locations of southern Italy. In contrast with previous studies collected data evidenced a significant variation of Har amount among the tested ecotypes. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between Har and ODAP level was observed. The effect of year-to-year variation of temperature and rainfall quantity is also discussed.
The Effect of Salinity (NaCl) on Germination of Selected Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Landraces of Tigray  [cached]
Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie,Berhane G/selasie
Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Worldwide, salinity affects 100 million ha of arable lands and this area is expanding. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different salinity levels on germination and seedling growth of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) landraces collected from Degua, Tembien district. During the experiment, a salt of sodium chloride was used as sources of treatment at different rate of concentrations and seeds were allowed to germinate in different concentration of NaCl. Five levels of NaCl salinity levels: 0 (control), 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS/m, respectively were prepared to simulate different salinity level. And germination percentage, germination index, relative germination rate, relative sodium chloride injury rate were determined for each landraces. All growth attributes such as fresh and dry shoot weights, shoot length and root length decreased with an increase in salinity levels. Furthermore, the landraces from Melfa were found to be highly tolerant to high salinity level. Finally, salinity has a strong effect on germination of Lathyrus sativus with the different selected land races of Tigray and it was concluded that with increase in salinity levels there was a significant reduction in biomass production in grass pea.
Phosphate Fertilization Can Increase Yield of Productive Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Crops in P-Retentive Soils
Montenegro,Adolfo; Mera,Mario;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392009000200014
Abstract: the effect of p fertilization on grass pea (lathyrus sativus l.) yield and yield components was evaluated on soils with low p availability and high p retention capacity in small-scale farms of the araucanía region in southern chile. trials were conducted during 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003, in six sites; three sites in lumaco and three in the selva oscura area. six rates of p (0, 21.8, 43.6, 65.4, 87.2, and 109.0 kg ha-1) were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. grass pea cv. luanco-inia was sown at 47 seeds m-2. mean grain yield for all trials was 2456 kg ha-1. phosphate fertilization increased grass pea grain yield in both areas during 2000 and 2001. there was no significant effect in 2002. the 2002 cropping season had an unusually high spring-summer rainfall, which may have enhanced the p mineralization rate from organic soil fraction, and thus p availability. according to this study, grass pea crops in soils with < 10 mg kg-1 of available p-olsen should respond to p fertilization.
Estimation of genetic variation of traits and physical properties of seeds for grass pea mutants (Lathyrus sativus L.)
Ryb?…??ski W.,Szot B.,Pokora L.,Pokora L.
International Agrophysics , 2004,
Abstract: As a result of mutation induction by using two chemomutagenes-sodium azide (NaN3) and N-nitroso-N- methy- lurea (MNU) as well as laser light, numerous mutants of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) were obtained. Initial material for the study was constituted by seeds of two Polish cultivars ¢ € “ Derek and Krab. For analyses of trait variation in a field trial and of the physical properties of seeds, 20 morphological mutants were chosen as well as the two above mentioned initial cultivars. The results obtained from the field trial indicate a broader genetic variation of traits for the mutants as compared to the initial cultivars. Some of the most interesting and desirable mutants were characterized by a decrease of plant height, a higher location of the lowest pod, and a reduction of lateral branches and biomass. Those traits resulted in better lodging resistance as well as in more uniform and earlier maturity. With reference to parameters of yield structure, some of the mutants exceeded their initial forms. A broad spectrum of variability was also observed for the physical properties of seeds, such as: seed thickness, weight of 1000 seeds and resistance to static compression. The mutants, in comparison to the initial cultivars, were characterized by higher or lower values of compressive strength as expressed by force, deformation and energy.
Genotype Environment Interaction in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Lines  [PDF]
G. B. Polignano,V. Bisignano,V. Tomaselli,P. Uggenti,V. Alba,C. Della Gatta
International Journal of Agronomy , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/898396
Abstract: Eight grass pea lines grown in three different seasons were evaluated for the stability of seed yield, 100 seeds weight, flowering time, plant height, and biomass. Significant differences existed among years, lines, and lines × years interaction for all traits except for 100 seeds weight. Two methods of multivariate analysis cluster and principal components were utilized to determine: firstly, whether a pattern existed among lines in their response across years and secondly to examine the relationships among them. In both analyses, each line was presented as a vector whose elements were given by the performance of lines in each year. The analyses used arranged the lines into groups that were differentiable in terms of performances and stability. Our results provide useful information to aid the choice of grass pea lines in the Mediterranean marginal areas.
Inheritance of Seed Weight in Large-Seed Grass Pea Lathyrus sativus L
Mera,Mario;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392010000300002
Abstract: mean seed weight (msw) is a relevant trait in grass pea (lathyrus sativus l.) commercialization because large grains are preferred in western markets. extending the knowledge on its mode of inheritance among large-seeded types would be useful in breeding programs, and therefore it was the objective of this work. a broad range of msw is found in grass pea, starting at about 30 mg. three lines (ls-97, ls-8, and ls-2026) within the large-seeded group but with significantly different msw (179, 360 and 470 mg, respectively), were crossed in a complete diallel. part of the f1 seed was sown and the remainder was stored. f1 plants from each cross were allowed to produce f2 seed and some were backcrossed to their respective parents. parents, f1, f2, and backcross populations were grown in the field in 2006. msw was obtained from single plants in each population. no difference was observed between reciprocals of crosses ls-97 ′ ls-8 and ls-8 ′ ls-2026; therefore, data from reciprocals were combined, assuming nuclear inheritance. however, f2 segregating population from cross ls-97 ′ ls-2026 and its reciprocal gave significantly different means, suggesting cytoplasmic inheritance. consequently, f2 and backcross data were handled separately to calculate heritability. parent lines with high msw, particularly ls-2026, had greater variances, raising the estimate of environmental variance. broad sense heritability estimates for msw were 0.50 and 0.32 for crosses ls-97 ′ ls-8 and ls-8 ′ ls-2026, respectively, and 0.23 and 0.24, for cross ls-97 ′ ls-2026 and its reciprocal, respectively. narrow sense heritabilities were 0.42 and 0.28, and 0.15 and 0.22, respectively. in all crosses, the genetic effects were predominantly additive, predicting a good response to selection for increased msw in early segregating generations. thus, the prospects to improve msw in large-seeded grass peas are auspicious.
Inheritance of Seed Weight in Large-Seed Grass Pea Lathyrus sativus L Herencia del Peso de Grano en Lathyrus sativus L. de Semilla Grande  [cached]
Pilar Ulloa,Mario Mera
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2010,
Abstract: Mean seed weight (MSW) is a relevant trait in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) commercialization because large grains are preferred in Western markets. Extending the knowledge on its mode of inheritance among large-seeded types would be useful in breeding programs, and therefore it was the objective of this work. A broad range of MSW is found in grass pea, starting at about 30 mg. Three lines (LS-97, LS-8, and LS-2026) within the large-seeded group but with significantly different MSW (179, 360 and 470 mg, respectively), were crossed in a complete diallel. Part of the F1 seed was sown and the remainder was stored. F1 plants from each cross were allowed to produce F2 seed and some were backcrossed to their respective parents. Parents, F1, F2, and backcross populations were grown in the field in 2006. MSW was obtained from single plants in each population. No difference was observed between reciprocals of crosses LS-97 ′ LS-8 and LS-8 ′ LS-2026; therefore, data from reciprocals were combined, assuming nuclear inheritance. However, F2 segregating population from cross LS-97 ′ LS-2026 and its reciprocal gave significantly different means, suggesting cytoplasmic inheritance. Consequently, F2 and backcross data were handled separately to calculate heritability. Parent lines with high MSW, particularly LS-2026, had greater variances, raising the estimate of environmental variance. Broad sense heritability estimates for MSW were 0.50 and 0.32 for crosses LS-97 ′ LS-8 and LS-8 ′ LS-2026, respectively, and 0.23 and 0.24, for cross LS-97 ′ LS-2026 and its reciprocal, respectively. Narrow sense heritabilities were 0.42 and 0.28, and 0.15 and 0.22, respectively. In all crosses, the genetic effects were predominantly additive, predicting a good response to selection for increased MSW in early segregating generations. Thus, the prospects to improve MSW in large-seeded grass peas are auspicious. Los granos de chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L.) de mayor tama o son preferidos en mercados occidentales, por tanto, el peso medio de grano (PMG) es un carácter comercialmente relevante. Extender el conocimiento sobre su modo de herencia sería útil para programas de mejoramiento y fue el objetivo de este trabajo. El chícharo presenta amplio rango para PMG, partiendo desde 30 mg. Tres líneas (LS-97, LS-8, LS-2026) consideradas de semilla grande, pero con PMG significativamente diferentes (179, 360 y 470 mg, respectivamente) se cruzaron en un dialelo completo. Parte de la semilla F1 se sembró y otra se conservó. Flores en plantas F1 de cada cruza se retrocruzaron con sus respectivos pr
Seed microstructure and genetic variation of characters in selected grass-pea mutants (Lathyrus sativus L.)
W. Rybi?…??ski,W. B?…??aszczak,J. Fornal
International Agrophysics , 2006,
Abstract: Significant differences in a mutant form of Polish grass-pea obtained from parental cultivars Derek and Krab by chemomutagenesis were shown. Agricultural properties of plants (plant height, number of branches, number of pods per plant and their length and width, as well as number and weight of seeds per pod and maturity), geometrical features of mature seeds, and their microstructure were investigated. It was shown that the range of traits for the analysed features of mutants exceeded the variation observed for the original cultivars - Krab and Derek. This is especially visible for such yield structure traits as pod number per plant, seed number and weight per pod. From the agricultural point of view, very promising are mutants with reduced plant height and biomass, decreased number of lateral branches, improved lodging resistance and earliness. Analyses of technological usability factors (harvesting, drying, storage) involved assays of seed coat thickness and cotyledone cell microstructure. The obtained results are of key importance to the selection of the most promising material for further genetic trials and breeding practice.
Growth Responses and Leaf Antioxidant Metabolism of Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Genotypes under Salinity Stress  [PDF]
Dibyendu Talukdar
ISRN Agronomy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/284830
Abstract: Response of six improved grass pea genotypes to prolonged salinity stress was investigated on seedlings grown in pot experiment using 150?mM NaCl up to 60 days of growth after commencement of treatment (DAC). NaCl exposure significantly reduced growth potential of varieties PUSA-90-2 and WBK-CB-14, but no such effect was observed in varieties B1, BioL-212 and in two mutant lines LR3 and LR4. A time-bound measurement at 15, 30 and 60 DAC revealed significant reduction in plant dry matter production, orchestrated through abnormally low capacity of leaf photosynthesis accompanied by low K+/Na+ ratio and onset of oxidative stress in all six genotypes at 15 DAC and the extension of the phenomena in PUSA-90-2 and WBK-CB-14 to 60 DAC. High superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity coupled with low ascorbate redox and declining ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalases (CAT) levels led to abnormal rise in H2O2 content at reproductive stage (30 DAC) in the latter two genotypes, consequently, resulting in NaCl-induced oxidative damage. H2O2 level in the rest of the four genotypes was modulated in a controlled way by balanced action of SOD, APX and CAT, preventing oxidative damage even under prolonged NaCl-exposure. Enzyme isoforms were involved in regulation of foliar H2O2-metabolism, which was critical in determining As tolerance of grass pea genotypes. 1. Introduction Soil salinity is one of the most severe abiotic stresses affecting production of the crops worldwide [1, 2]. This problem is more severe in arid and semiarid regions, and legume plants already face a notable impact of salt stress in these regions [3, 4]. The legume family is the second only to the cereals in their importance to mankind [3], but unfortunately, improvements of this group of plants for their tolerance against soil salinity stress have not kept pace with those of cereals and oil seeds. Salinity induces oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the plant cells [5]. The resultant damage is generally manifested by different alterations at cellular level including membrane lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and sometimes over accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 is a highly diffusible ROS within plant cell and its dual roles as a stress-inducer and at the same time as a signaling molecule to upregulate primary antioxidant defense during oxidative stress have been increasingly recognized in different crops including legumes [6–8]. Among the prominent enzymatic system involved in ROS scavenging, SOD constitutes the first line of defense, but it
Effects of blanching and soaking on some physical characteristics of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus)
Kelbessa Urga, H Fufa, E Biratu, M Gebretsadik
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2006,
Abstract: Lathyrus sativus, containing a lathyritic principle, called β-ODAP (β-N-Oxalyl-L- α, β-diaminopropionic acid), is widely grown and consumed in Ethiopia. It is a hardy crop grown under various agro-ecological situations. The major drawback in the use of the legume is the fact that the seeds, in common with other legumes, are not easily rehydrated, are difficult to cook, the seed coat is difficult to remove and long cooking time is required by traditional processing methods for tenderization. In this study, the effect of processing methods like blanching, soaking and cooking on water absorption, leached solids, swelling power, cooking time and sensory qualities of grass pea seeds were investigated. The soaking solutions used were mixed with salt solution, wood ash solution and double distilled de-ionized water. Blanching significantly (p < 0.05) increased total water absorbed, swelling power, leached solids and reduced cooking time compared to unbalanced seeds. Soaking blanched seeds in salt or wood ash solution was noted to be most effective in promoting seed softening during cooking, compared to double distilled water. Blanched grass pea seeds soaked for 12 hours in the three soaking solutions caused reduction of 60%, 73% and 68%, respectively, in cooking time. In contrast, unblanched grass pea seeds soaked for 12 hours in the three soaking solutions caused reduction of 30%, 46% and 40%, respectively, in cooking time. Water absorption, swelling power and leached solids values were negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with the cooking time. The study results indicated that blanching and hydration of grass pea seeds improved the sensory characteristics of cooked seeds, significantly reduced the cooking time and increased the weight and texture of the cooked seeds. Application of blanching preceded by soaking at village level as an integral part of traditional methods of processing grass pea seeds, thus offers the dual advantage of saving of valuable fuels by shortening cooking time, as well as rendering the seeds more acceptable to consumers. In the absence of salt, wood ash suspension treatment may be a satisfactory alternative in the production of quick-cooking grass pea seeds.
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