Abstract:
Let $(X, d)$ be a compact metric space and let $\mathcal{M}(X)$ denote the space of all finite signed Borel measures on $X$. Define $I \colon \mathcal{M}(X) \to \R$ by \[ I(\mu) = \int_X \int_X d(x,y) d\mu(x) d\mu(y), \] and set $M(X) = \sup I(\mu)$, where $\mu$ ranges over the collection of signed measures in $\mathcal{M}(X)$ of total mass 1. This paper, with an earlier and a subsequent paper [Peter Nickolas and Reinhard Wolf, Distance geometry in quasihypermetric spaces. I and III], investigates the geometric constant $M(X)$ and its relationship to the metric properties of $X$ and the functional-analytic properties of a certain subspace of $\mathcal{M}(X)$ when equipped with a natural semi-inner product. Using the work of the earlier paper, this paper explores measures which attain the supremum defining $M(X)$, sequences of measures which approximate the supremum when the supremum is not attained and conditions implying or equivalent to the finiteness of $M(X)$.

Abstract:
Let $(X, d)$ be a compact metric space and let $\mathcal{M}(X)$ denote the space of all finite signed Borel measures on $X$. Define $I \colon \mathcal{M}(X) \to \R$ by \[I(\mu) = \int_X \int_X d(x,y) d\mu(x) d\mu(y),\] and set $M(X) = \sup I(\mu)$, where $\mu$ ranges over the collection of signed measures in $\mathcal{M}(X)$ of total mass 1. The metric space $(X, d)$ is quasihypermetric if for all $n \in \N$, all $\alpha_1, ..., \alpha_n \in \R$ satisfying $\sum_{i=1}^n \alpha_i = 0$ and all $x_1, ..., x_n \in X$, one has $\sum_{i,j=1}^n \alpha_i \alpha_j d(x_i, x_j) \leq 0$. Without the quasihypermetric property $M(X)$ is infinite, while with the property a natural semi-inner product structure becomes available on $\mathcal{M}_0(X)$, the subspace of $\mathcal{M}(X)$ of all measures of total mass 0. This paper explores: operators and functionals which provide natural links between the metric structure of $(X, d)$, the semi-inner product space structure of $\mathcal{M}_0(X)$ and the Banach space $C(X)$ of continuous real-valued functions on $X$; conditions equivalent to the quasihypermetric property; the topological properties of $\mathcal{M}_0(X)$ with the topology induced by the semi-inner product, and especially the relation of this topology to the weak-$*$ topology and the measure-norm topology on $\mathcal{M}_0(X)$; and the functional-analytic properties of $\mathcal{M}_0(X)$ as a semi-inner product space, including the question of its completeness. A later paper [Peter Nickolas and Reinhard Wolf, Distance Geometry in Quasihypermetric Spaces. II] will apply the work of this paper to a detailed analysis of the constant $M(X)$.

Abstract:
Let $(X, d)$ be a compact metric space and let $\mathcal{M}(X)$ denote the space of all finite signed Borel measures on $X$. Define $I \colon \mathcal{M}(X) \to \R$ by $I(mu) = \int_X \int_X d(x,y) d\mu(x) d\mu(y)$, and set $M(X) = \sup I(mu)$, where $\mu$ ranges over the collection of measures in $\mathcal{M}(X)$ of total mass 1. The space $(X, d)$ is \emph{quasihypermetric} if $I(\mu) \leq 0$ for all measures $\mu$ in $\mathcal{M}(X)$ of total mass 0 and is \emph{strictly quasihypermetric} if in addition the equality $I(\mu) = 0$ holds amongst measures $\mu$ of mass 0 only for the zero measure. This paper explores the constant $M(X)$ and other geometric aspects of $X$ in the case when the space $X$ is finite, focusing first on the significance of the maximal strictly quasihypermetric subspaces of a given finite quasihypermetric space and second on the class of finite metric spaces which are $L^1$-embeddable. While most of the results are for finite spaces, several apply also in the general compact case. The analysis builds upon earlier more general work of the authors [Peter Nickolas and Reinhard Wolf, \emph{Distance geometry in quasihypermetric spaces. I}, \emph{II} and \emph{III}].

Abstract:
In this paper we study the geometry of graph spaces endowed with a special class of graph edit distances. The focus is on geometrical results useful for statistical pattern recognition. The main result is the Graph Representation Theorem. It states that a graph is a point in some geometrical space, called orbit space. Orbit spaces are well investigated and easier to explore than the original graph space. We derive a number of geometrical results from the orbit space representation, translate them to the graph space, and indicate their significance and usefulness in statistical pattern recognition.

Abstract:
As the third of our series of papers on differential geometry of microlinear Frolicher spaces, this paper is devoted to the Frolicher-Nijenhuis calculus of their named bracket. The main result is that the Frolicher-Nijenhuis bracket satisfies the graded Jacobi identity. It is also shown that the Lie derivation preserves the Frolicher-Nijenhuis bracket. Our definitions and discussions are highly geometric, while Frolicher and Nijenhuis' original definitions and discussions were highly algebraic.

Abstract:
An algebraic formulation of Riemannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented, where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their counterparts. This description is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective spaces and the two-sheeted space.

Abstract:
A kissing sphere is a sphere that is tangent to a fixed reference ball. We develop in this paper a distance geometry for kissing spheres, which turns out to be a generalization of the classical Euclidean distance geometry.

Abstract:
This is a partial account of the fascinating history of Distance Geometry. We make no claim to completeness, but we do promise a dazzling display of beautiful, elementary mathematics. We prove Heron's formula, Cauchy's theorem on the rigidity of polyhedra, Cayley's generalization of Heron's formula to higher dimensions, Menger's characterization of abstract semi-metric spaces, a result of Goedel on metric spaces on the sphere, and Schoenberg's equivalence of distance and positive semidefinite matrices, which is at the basis of Multidimensional Scaling.

Abstract:
In this work an intrinsic projectively invariant distance is used to establish a new approach to the study of projective geometry in Finsler space. It is shown that the projectively invariant distance previously defined is a constant multiple of the Finsler distance in certain case. As a consequence, two projectively related complete Einstein Finsler spaces with constant negative scalar curvature are homothetic. Evidently, this will be true for Finsler spaces of constant flag curvature as well.