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From Gumbel to Tracy-Widom  [PDF]
Kurt Johansson
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: The Tracy-Widom distribution that has been much studied in recent years can be thought of as an extreme value distribution. We discuss interpolation between the classical extreme value distribution $\exp(-\exp(-x))$, the Gumbel distribution and the Tracy-Widom distribution. There is a family of determinantal processes whose edge behaviour interpolates between a Poisson process with density $\exp(-x)$ and the Airy kernel point process. This process can be obtained as a scaling limit of a grand canonical version of a random matrix model introduced by Moshe, Neuberger and Shapiro. We also consider the deformed GUE ensemble, $M=M_0+\sqrt{2S} V$, with $M_0$ diagobal with independent elements and $V$ from GUE. Here we do not see a transition from Tracy-Widom to Gumbel, but rather a transition from Tracy-Widom to Gaussian.
On an identity due to ((Bump and Diaconis) and (Tracy and Widom))  [PDF]
Paul-Olivier Dehaye
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: A classical question for a Toeplitz matrix with given symbol is to compute asymptotics for the determinants of its reductions to finite rank. One can also consider how those asymptotics are affected when shifting an initial set of rows and columns (or, equivalently, asymptotics of their minors). Bump and Diaconis (Toeplitz minors, J. Combin. Theory Ser. A, 97 (2002), pp. 252--271) obtained a formula for such shifts involving Laguerre polynomials and sums over symmetric groups. They also showed how the Heine identity extends for such minors, which makes this question relevant to Random Matrix Theory. Independently, Tracy and Widom (On the limit of some Toeplitz-like determinants, SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 23 (2002), pp. 1194--1196) used the Wiener-Hopf factorization to express those shifts in terms of products of infinite matrices. We show directly why those two expressions are equal and uncover some structure in both formulas that was unknown to their authors. We introduce a mysterious differential operator on symmetric functions that is very similar to vertex operators. We show that the Bump-Diaconis-Tracy- Widom identity is a differentiated version of the classical Jacobi-Trudi identity.
Integrable operators and squares of Hankel Matrices  [PDF]
A. J. McCafferty
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: In this note, we find sufficient conditions for an operator with kernel of the form $A(x)B(y)-A(x)B(y)/(x-y)$ (which we call a Tracy-Widom type operator) to be the square of a Hankel operator. We consider two contexts: infinite matrices on $\ell^2$, and integral operators on the Hardy space $H^2(\mathbb{T})$. The results can be applied to the discrete Bessel kernel, which is significant in random matrix theory.
Deformations of the Tracy-Widom distribution  [PDF]
O. Bohigas,J. X. de Carvalho,M. P. Pato
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.031117
Abstract: In random matrix theory (RMT), the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution describes the behavior of the largest eigenvalue. We consider here two models in which TW undergoes transformations. In the first one disorder is introduced in the Gaussian ensembles by superimposing an external source of randomness. A competition between TW and a normal (Gaussian) distribution results, depending on the spreading of the disorder. The second model consists in removing at random a fraction of (correlated) eigenvalues of a random matrix. The usual formalism of Fredholm determinants extends naturally. A continuous transition from TW to the Weilbull distribution, characteristc of extreme values of an uncorrelated sequence, is obtained.
Searching for the Tracy-Widom distribution in nonequilibrium processes  [PDF]
Christian B. Mendl,Herbert Spohn
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: While originally discovered in the context of the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble, the Tracy-Widom distribution also rules the height fluctuations of growth processes. This suggests that there might be other nonequilibrium processes in which the Tracy-Widom distribution plays an important role. In our contribution we study one-dimensional systems with domain wall initial conditions. For an appropriate choice of parameters the profile develops a rarefaction wave, while maintaining the initial equilibrium states far to the left and right, which thus serve as infinitely extended thermal reservoirs. For two distinct model systems we will demonstrate that the properly projected time-integrated current has a deterministic contribution, linear in time $t$, and fluctuations of size $t^{1/3}$ with a Tracy-Widom distributed random amplitude.
Tracy-Widom at high temperature  [PDF]
Romain Allez,Laure Dumaz
Statistics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s10955-014-1058-z
Abstract: We investigate the marginal distribution of the bottom eigenvalues of the stochastic Airy operator when the inverse temperature $\beta$ tends to $0$. We prove that the minimal eigenvalue, whose fluctuations are governed by the Tracy-Widom $\beta$ law, converges weakly, when properly centered and scaled, to the Gumbel distribution. More generally we obtain the convergence in law of the marginal distribution of any eigenvalue with given index $k$. Those convergences are obtained after a careful analysis of the explosion times process of the Riccati diffusion associated to the stochastic Airy operator. We show that the empirical measure of the explosion times converges weakly to a Poisson point process using estimates proved in [L. Dumaz and B. Vir\'ag. Ann. Inst. H. Poincar\'e Probab. Statist. 49, 4, 915-933, (2013)]. We further compute the empirical eigenvalue density of the stochastic Airy ensemble on the macroscopic scale when $\beta\to 0$. As an application, we investigate the maximal eigenvalues statistics of $\beta_N$-ensembles when the repulsion parameter $\beta_N\to 0$ when $N\to +\infty$. We study the double scaling limit $N\to +\infty, \beta_N \to 0$ and argue with heuristic and numerical arguments that the statistics of the marginal distributions can be deduced following the ideas of [A. Edelman and B. D. Sutton. J. Stat. Phys. 127, 6, 1121-1165 (2007)] and [J. A. Ram\'irez, B. Rider and B. Vir\'ag. J. Amer. Math. Soc. 24, 919-944 (2011)] from our later study of the stochastic Airy operator.
Tracy-Widom limit of q-Hahn TASEP  [PDF]
Bálint Vet?
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We consider the q-Hahn TASEP which is a three-parameter family of discrete time interacting particle systems. The particles jump to the right independently according to a certain q-Binomial distribution with parallel updates. It is a generalization of the discrete time q-TASEP which is the q-deformed totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) on Z for q in [0,1). For step initial condition, we prove that the current fluctuation of q-Hahn TASEP at time t is of order $t^{1/3}$ and asymptotically distributed as the GUE Tracy-Widom distribution. We verify the KPZ scaling theory conjecture for the q-Hahn TASEP.
Higher Order Analogues of Tracy-Widom Distributions via the Lax Method  [PDF]
Gernot Akemann,Max R. Atkin
Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/46/1/015202
Abstract: We study the distribution of the largest eigenvalue in formal Hermitian one-matrix models at multicriticality, where the spectral density acquires an extra number of k-1 zeros at the edge. The distributions are directly expressed through the norms of orthogonal polynomials on a semi-infinite interval, as an alternative to using Fredholm determinants. They satisfy non-linear recurrence relations which we show form a Lax pair, making contact to the string literature in the early 1990's. The technique of pseudo-differential operators allows us to give compact expressions for the logarithm of the gap probability in terms of the Painleve XXXIV hierarchy. These are the higher order analogues of the Tracy-Widom distribution which has k=1. Using known Backlund transformations we show how to simplify earlier equivalent results that are derived from Fredholm determinant theory, valid for even k in terms of the Painleve II hierarchy.
Tracy-Widom asymptotics for q-TASEP  [PDF]
Patrik L. Ferrari,Balint Veto
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We consider the q-TASEP that is a q-deformation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) on Z for q in [0,1) where the jump rates depend on the gap to the next particle. For step initial condition, we prove that the current fluctuation of q-TASEP at time t are of order t^{1/3} and asymptotically distributed as the GUE Tracy-Widom distribution, which confirms the KPZ scaling theory conjecture.
Painlevé representation of Tracy-Widom$_β$ distribution for $β = 6$  [PDF]
Igor Rumanov
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: In arXiv:1306.2117, we found explicit Lax pairs for the soft edge of beta ensembles with even integer values of $\beta$. Using this general result, the case $\beta=6$ is further considered here. This is the smallest even $\beta$, when the corresponding Lax pair and its relation to Painlev\'e II (PII) have not been known before, unlike cases $\beta=2$ and $4$. It turns out that again everything can be expressed in terms of the Hastings-McLeod solution of PII. In particular, a second order nonlinear ODE for the logarithmic derivative of Tracy-Widom distribution for $\beta=6$ involving the PII function in the coefficients, is found, which allows one to compute asymptotics for the distribution function. The ODE is a consequence of a linear system of three ODEs for which the local Painlev\'e analysis yields series solutions with exponents in the set $4/3$, $1/3$ and $-2/3$.
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