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Joint Relay and Jammer Selection for Secure Two-Way Relay Networks  [PDF]
Jingchao Chen,Rongqing Zhang,Lingyang Song,Zhu Han,Bingli Jiao
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate joint relay and jammer selection in two-way cooperative networks, consisting of two sources, a number of intermediate nodes, and one eavesdropper, with the constraints of physical layer security. Specifically, the proposed algorithms select two or three intermediate nodes to enhance security against the malicious eavesdropper. The first selected node operates in the conventional relay mode and assists the sources to deliver their data to the corresponding destinations using an amplify-and-forward protocol. The second and third nodes are used in different communication phases as jammers in order to create intentional interference upon the eavesdropper node. Firstly, we find that in a topology where the intermediate nodes are randomly and sparsely distributed, the proposed schemes with cooperative jamming outperform the conventional non-jamming schemes within a certain transmitted power regime. We also find that, in the scenario in which the intermediate nodes gather as a close cluster, the jamming schemes may be less effective than their non-jamming counterparts. Therefore, we introduce a hybrid scheme to switch between jamming and non-jamming modes. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that the hybrid switching scheme further improves the secrecy rate.
Relay Selection for Bidirectional AF Relay Network with Outdated CSI  [PDF]
Hongyu Cui,Rongqing Zhang,Lingyang Song,Bingli Jiao
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: Most previous researches on bidirectional relay selection (RS) typically assume perfect channel state information (CSI). However, outdated CSI, caused by the the time-variation of channel, cannot be ignored in the practical system, and it will deteriorate the performance. In this paper, the effect of outdated CSI on the performance of bidirectional amplify-and-forward RS is investigated. The optimal single RS scheme in minimizing the symbol error rate (SER) is revised by incorporating the outdated channels. The analytical expressions of end-to-end signal to noise ratio (SNR) and symbol error rate (SER) are derived in a closed-form, along with the asymptotic SER expression in high SNR. All the analytical expressions are verified by the Monte-Carlo simulations. The analytical and the simulation results reveal that once CSI is outdated, the diversity order degrades to one from full diversity. Furthermore, a multiple RS scheme is proposed and verified that this scheme is a feasible solution to compensate the diversity loss caused by outdated CSI.
The Impact of CSI and Power Allocation on Relay Channel Capacity and Cooperation Strategies  [PDF]
Chris T. K. Ng,Andrea J. Goldsmith
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1109/T-WC.2008.071185
Abstract: Capacity gains from transmitter and receiver cooperation are compared in a relay network where the cooperating nodes are close together. Under quasi-static phase fading, when all nodes have equal average transmit power along with full channel state information (CSI), it is shown that transmitter cooperation outperforms receiver cooperation, whereas the opposite is true when power is optimally allocated among the cooperating nodes but only CSI at the receiver (CSIR) is available. When the nodes have equal power with CSIR only, cooperative schemes are shown to offer no capacity improvement over non-cooperation under the same network power constraint. When the system is under optimal power allocation with full CSI, the decode-and-forward transmitter cooperation rate is close to its cut-set capacity upper bound, and outperforms compress-and-forward receiver cooperation. Under fast Rayleigh fading in the high SNR regime, similar conclusions follow. Cooperative systems provide resilience to fading in channel magnitudes; however, capacity becomes more sensitive to power allocation, and the cooperating nodes need to be closer together for the decode-and-forward scheme to be capacity-achieving. Moreover, to realize capacity improvement, full CSI is necessary in transmitter cooperation, while in receiver cooperation optimal power allocation is essential.
Energy Efficiency Optimization in Relay-Assisted MIMO Systems with Perfect and Statistical CSI  [PDF]
Alessio Zappone,Pan Cao,Eduard A. Jorswieck
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2013.2292031
Abstract: A framework for energy-efficient resource allocation in a single-user, amplify-and-forward relay-assisted MIMO system is devised in this paper. Previous results in this area have focused on rate maximization or sum power minimization problems, whereas fewer results are available when bits/Joule energy efficiency (EE) optimization is the goal. The performance metric to optimize is the ratio between the system's achievable rate and the total consumed power. The optimization is carried out with respect to the source and relay precoding matrices, subject to QoS and power constraints. Such a challenging non-convex problem is tackled by means of fractional programming and and alternating maximization algorithms, for various CSI assumptions at the source and relay. In particular the scenarios of perfect CSI and those of statistical CSI for either the source-relay or the relay-destination channel are addressed. Moreover, sufficient conditions for beamforming optimality are derived, which is useful in simplifying the system design. Numerical results are provided to corroborate the validity of the theoretical findings.
Outage Probability versus Fairness Trade-off in Opportunistic Relay Selection with Outdated CSI  [cached]
Vicario JoseLopez,Bel Albert,Morell Antoni,Seco-Granados Gonzalo
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2009,
Abstract: We analyze the existing trade-offs in terms of system performance versus fairness of a cooperative system based on opportunistic relay selection (ORS) and with outdated channel state information (CSI). In particular, system performance is analytically evaluated in terms of outage probability, and the fairness behavior is assessed based on the power consumption at the different relays. In order to improve the fairness behavior of ORS while keeping the selection diversity gain, we propose a relay selection mechanism where the relay with the highest normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is selected for relaying the source's information. The proposed strategy is compared with existing relay selection strategies by adopting a novel graphical representation inspired by expected profit versus risk plots used in modern portfolio theory. As shown in the paper, this strategy allows operating the system in more favorable points of the outage versus fairness region.
Outage Probability versus Fairness Trade-off in Opportunistic Relay Selection with Outdated CSI  [cached]
Jose Lopez Vicario,Albert Bel,Antoni Morell,Gonzalo Seco-Granados
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/412837
Abstract: We analyze the existing trade-offs in terms of system performance versus fairness of a cooperative system based on opportunistic relay selection (ORS) and with outdated channel state information (CSI). In particular, system performance is analytically evaluated in terms of outage probability, and the fairness behavior is assessed based on the power consumption at the different relays. In order to improve the fairness behavior of ORS while keeping the selection diversity gain, we propose a relay selection mechanism where the relay with the highest normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is selected for relaying the source's information. The proposed strategy is compared with existing relay selection strategies by adopting a novel graphical representation inspired by expected profit versus risk plots used in modern portfolio theory. As shown in the paper, this strategy allows operating the system in more favorable points of the outage versus fairness region.
MIMO DF Relay Beamforming for Secrecy with Artificial Noise, Imperfect CSI, and Finite-Alphabet  [PDF]
Sanjay Vishwakarma,A. Chockalingam
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we consider decode-and-forward (DF) relay beamforming with imperfect channel state information (CSI), cooperative artificial noise (AN) injection, and finite-alphabet input in the presence of an user and $J$ non-colluding eavesdroppers. The communication between the source and the user is aided by a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) DF relay. We use the fact that a wiretap code consists of two parts: i) common message (non-secret), and ii) secret message. The source transmits two independent messages: i) common message (non-secret), and ii) secret message. The common message is transmitted at a fixed rate $R_{0}$, and it is intended for the user. The secret message is also intended for the user but it should be kept secret from the $J$ eavesdroppers. The source and the MIMO DF relay operate under individual power constraints. In order to improve the secrecy rate, the MIMO relay also injects artificial noise. The CSI on all the links are assumed to be imperfect and CSI errors are assumed to be norm bounded. In order to maximize the worst case secrecy rate, we maximize the worst case link information rate to the user subject to: i) the individual power constraints on the source and the MIMO relay, and ii) the best case link information rates to $J$ eavesdroppers be less than or equal to $R_{0}$ in order to support a fixed common message rate $R_{0}$. Numerical results showing the effect of perfect/imperfect CSI, presence/absence of AN with finite-alphabet input on the secrecy rate are presented.
Impact of partial relay selection on the capacity of communications systems with outdated CSI and adaptive transmission techniques
Bin Zhong, Zhongshan Zhang, Xu Zhang, Yan Li and Keping Long
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1687-1499-2013-24
Abstract: The impact of outdated channel state information (CSI) on the capacity of amplify-and-forward (AF) partial relay selection systems is studied in this paper. The closed-form expressions for the distribution of received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in a multi-relay cooperative communications system is first derived, with independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels being assumed in each wireless link. After that, the theoretical closed-form expressions for both outage probability and channel capacity of partial relay selection are derived, with four classical adaptive transmission techniques, including the constant power with optimal rate adaption (ORA), the optimal power and rate adaption (OPRA), the channel inversion with fixed rate (CIFR) and truncated channel inversion with fixed rate (TIFR), being considered. Numerical analysis proves that the channel capacity of partial relay selection is impacted considerably by some critical parameters, including the number of relays, the channel correlation coefficient and the end-to-end SNR, etc. It's also exhibited in the numerical results that among the four adaptive transmission techniques, the diversity order of OPRA is larger than that of TIFR, and the OPRA outperforms TIFR with about 0.15 bits/s/Hz in terms of average channel capacity.
Relay-Selection Improves the Security-Reliability Trade-off in Cognitive Radio Systems  [PDF]
Yulong Zou,Benoit Champagne,Wei-Ping Zhu,Lajos Hanzo
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We consider a cognitive radio (CR) network consisting of a secondary transmitter (ST), a secondary destination (SD) and multiple secondary relays (SRs) in the presence of an eavesdropper. We rely on careful relay selection for protecting the ST-SD transmission against the eavesdropper with the aid of both single-relay and multi-relay selection. To be specific, only the "best" SR is chosen in the single-relay selection for assisting the secondary transmission, whereas the multi-relay selection invokes multiple SRs for simultaneously forwarding the ST's transmission to the SD. We analyze both the intercept probability and outage probability of the proposed single-relay and multi-relay selection schemes for the secondary transmission relying on realistic spectrum sensing. We also evaluate the performance of classic direct transmission and artificial noise based methods for the purpose of comparison with the proposed relay selection schemes. It is shown that as the intercept probability requirement is relaxed, the outage performance of the direct transmission, the artificial noise based and the relay selection schemes improves, and vice versa. This implies a trade-off between the security and reliability of the secondary transmission in the presence of eavesdropping attacks, which is referred to as the security-reliability trade-off (SRT). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SRTs of the single-relay and multi-relay selection schemes are generally better than that of classic direct transmission. Moreover, as the number of SRs increases, the SRTs of the proposed single-relay and multi-relay selection approaches significantly improve. Finally, our numerical results show that as expected, the multi-relay selection scheme achieves a better SRT performance than the single-relay selection.
A Secure Communication Game with a Relay Helping the Eavesdropper  [PDF]
Melda Yuksel,Xi Liu,Elza Erkip
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1109/TIFS.2011.2125956
Abstract: In this work a four terminal complex Gaussian network composed of a source, a destination, an eavesdropper and a jammer relay is studied under two different set of assumptions: (i) The jammer relay does not hear the source transmission, and (ii) The jammer relay is causally given the source message. In both cases the jammer relay assists the eavesdropper and aims to decrease the achievable secrecy rates. The source, on the other hand, aims to increase it. To help the eavesdropper, the jammer relay can use pure relaying and/or send interference. Each of the problems is formulated as a two-player, non-cooperative, zero-sum continuous game. Assuming Gaussian strategies at the source and the jammer relay in the first problem, the Nash equilibrium is found and shown to be achieved with mixed strategies in general. The optimal cumulative distribution functions (cdf) for the source and the jammer relay that achieve the value of the game, which is the Nash equilibrium secrecy rate, are found. For the second problem, the Nash equilibrium solution is found and the results are compared to the case when the jammer relay is not informed about the source message.
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