Abstract:
We give a topological and geometrical description of focus-focus singularities of integrable Hamiltonian systems. In particular, we explain why the monodromy around these singularities is non-trivial, a result obtained before by J.J. Duistermaat and others for some concrete systems.

Abstract:
We show a natural relation between the monodromy formula for focus-focus singularities of integrable Hamiltonian systems and a formula of Duistermaat-Heckman, and extend the main results of our previous note on focus-focus singularities ($\bbS^1$-action, monodromy, and topological classification) to the degenerate case. We also consider the non-Hamiltonian case, local normal forms, etc.

Abstract:
This is the English version of a friendly graduate course on Classical Mechanics, containing about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. For the Spanish version, see physics/9906066

Abstract:
All measurable predictions of classical mechanics can be reproduced from a quantum-like interpretation of a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The key observation leading to classical physics is the fact that a wave function that satisfies a linear equation is real and positive, rather than complex. This has profound implications on the role of the Bohmian classical-like interpretation of linear quantum mechanics, as well as on the possibilities to find a consistent interpretation of arbitrary nonlinear generalizations of quantum mechanics.

Abstract:
Contrary to the widespread belief, the problem of the emergence of classical mechanics from quantum mechanics is still open. In spite of many results on the $\h \to 0$ asymptotics, it is not yet clear how to explain within standard quantum mechanics the classical motion of macroscopic bodies. In this paper we shall analyze special cases of classical behavior in the framework of a precise formulation of quantum mechanics, Bohmian mechanics, which contains in its own structure the possibility of describing real objects in an observer-independent way.

Abstract:
Fractional classical mechanics has been introduced and developed as a classical counterpart of the fractional quantum mechanics. Lagrange, Hamilton and Hamilton-Jacobi frameworks have been implemented for the fractional classical mechanics. The Lagrangian of fractional classical mechanics has been introduced, and equation of motion has been obtained. Fractional oscillator model has been launched and solved in 1D case. A new equation for the period of oscillations of fractional classical oscillator has been found. The interplay between the energy dependency of the period of classical oscillations and the non-equidistant distribution of the energy levels for fractional quantum oscillator has been discussed. We discuss as well, the relationships between new equations of fractional classical mechanics and the well-known fundamental equations of classical mechanics.

Abstract:
The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics assumes the existence of the classical deterministic Newtonian world. We argue that in fact the Newton determinism in classical world does not hold and in classical mechanics there is fundamental and irreducible randomness. The classical Newtonian trajectory does not have a direct physical meaning since arbitrary real numbers are not observable. There are classical uncertainty relations, i.e. the uncertainty (errors of observation) in the determination of coordinate and momentum is always positive (non zero). A "functional" formulation of classical mechanics was suggested. The fundamental equation of the microscopic dynamics in the functional approach is not the Newton equation but the Liouville equation for the distribution function of the single particle. Solutions of the Liouville equation have the property of delocalization which accounts for irreversibility. The Newton equation in this approach appears as an approximate equation describing the dynamics of the average values of the position and momenta for not too long time intervals. Corrections to the Newton trajectories are computed. An interpretation of quantum mechanics is attempted in which both classical and quantum mechanics contain fundamental randomness. Instead of an ensemble of events one introduces an ensemble of observers.