In this paper, we will give a theoretical foundation for a quaternion-valued widely linear estimation framework. The estimation error obtained with the quaternion-valued widely linear estimation method is proved to be smaller than that obtained using the usual quaternion-valued linear estimation method.

Abstract:
In the paper I considered linear and antilinear automorphisms of quaternion algebra. I proved the theorem that there is unique expansion of R-linear mapping of quaternion algebra relative to the given set of linear and antilinear automorphisms.

Abstract:
A non-associative Groenewold-Moyal plane is constructed using quaternion-valued function algebras. The symmetrized multi-particle states, the scalar product, the annihilation/creation algebra and d the formulation in terms of a Hopf algebra are also developed. Non-associative quantum algebras in terms of position and momentum operators are given as the simplest examples of a framework whose applications may involve string theory and non-linear quantum field theory

Abstract:
In the paper I considered mappings of conjugation of quaternion algebra. I proved the theorem that there is unique expansion of R-linear mapping of quaternion algebra relative to the given set of mappings of conjugation.

Abstract:
Quaternion derivatives in the mathematical literature are typically defined only for analytic (regular) functions. However, in engineering problems, functions of interest are often real-valued and thus not analytic, such as the standard cost function. The HR calculus is a convenient way to calculate formal derivatives of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables, however, both the HR and other functional calculus in quaternion analysis have encountered an essential technical obstacle, that is, the traditional product rule is invalid due to the non- commutativity of the quaternion algebra. To address this issue, a generalized form of the HR derivative is proposed based on a general orthogonal system. The so introduced generalization, called the generalized HR (GHR) calculus, encompasses not just the left- and right-hand versions of quaternion derivative, but also enables solutions to some long standing problems, such as the novel product rule, the chain rule, the mean-valued theorem and Taylor's theorem. At the core of the proposed approach is the quaternion rotation, which can naturally be applied to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples on using the GHR calculus in adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

Abstract:
This paper establishes a systematic frame work for the theory of linear quaternion-valued differential equations (QDEs), which can be applied to quantum mechanics, Frenet frame in differential geometry, kinematic modelling, attitude dynamics, Kalman filter design, spatial rigid body dynamics and fluid mechanics, etc. On the non-commutativity of the quaternion algebra, the algebraic structure of the solutions to the QDEs is not a linear vector space. It is actually a left- or right- module. Moreover, many concepts and properties for the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) can not be used. They should be redefined accordingly. A definition of {\em Wronskian} is introduced under the framework of quaternions which is different from standard one in the ordinary differential equations. Liouville formula for QDEs is given. Also, it is necessary to treat the eigenvalue problems with left- and right-sides, accordingly. Upon these, we studied the solutions to the linear QDEs. Furthermore, we present two algorithms to evaluate the fundamental matrix. Some concrete examples are given to show the feasibility of the obtained algorithms. Finally, a conclusion and discussion ends the paper.

Abstract:
In this paper we further develop the method of quaternion typification of Clifford algebra elements suggested by the author in the previous paper. On the basis of new classification of Clifford algebra elements it is possible to find out and prove a number of new properties of Clifford algebra. We use k-fold commutators and anticommutators.

Abstract:
For quaternionic signal processing algorithms, the gradients of a quaternion-valued function are required for gradient-based methods. Given the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra, the definition of the gradients is non-trivial. The HR gradient operator provides a viable framework and has found a number of applications. However, the applications so far have been mainly limited to real-valued quaternion functions and linear quaternion-valued functions. To generalize the operator to nonlinear quaternion functions, we define a restricted version of the HR operator. The restricted HR gradient operator comes in two versions, the left and the right ones. We then present a detailed analysis of the properties of the operators, including several different product rules and chain rules. Using the new rules, we derive explicit expressions for the derivatives of a class of regular nonlinear quaternion-valued functions, and prove that the restricted HR gradients are consistent with the gradients in real domain.

Abstract:
The general linear quaternion function of degree one is a sum of terms with quaternion coefficients on the left and right. The paper considers the canonic form of such a function, and builds on the recent work of Todd Ell, who has shown that any such function may be represented using at most four quaternion coefficients. In this paper, a new and simple method is presented for obtaining these coefficients numerically using a matrix approach which also gives an alternative proof of the canonic forms.

Abstract:
We present a new classification of Clifford algebra elements. Our classification is based on the notion of quaternion type. Using this classification we develop a method of analysis of commutators and anticommutators of Clifford algebra elements. This method allows us to find out and prove a number of new properties of Clifford algebra elements.