Abstract:
The present paper contains two interrelated developments. First, are proposed new generalized Verma modules. They are called k-Verma modules, k\in N, and coincide with the usual Verma modules for k=1. As a vector space a k-Verma module is isomorphic to the symmetric tensor product of k copies of the universal enveloping algebra U(g^-), where g^- is the subalgebra of lowering generators in the standard triangular decomposition of a simple Lie algebra g = g^+ \oplus h \oplus g^- . The second development is the proposal of a procedure for the construction of multilinear intertwining differential operators for semisimple Lie groups G . This procedure uses k-Verma modules and coincides for k=1 with a procedure for the construction of linear intertwining differential operators. For all k central role is played by the singular vectors of the k-Verma modules. Explicit formulae for series of such singular vectors are given. Using these are given explicitly many new examples of multilinear intertwining differential operators. In particular, for G = SL(2,R) are given explicitly all bilinear intertwining differential operators. Using the latter, as an application are constructed (n/2)-differentials for all n\in 2N, the ordinary Schwarzian being the case n=4. As another application, in a Note Added we propose a new hierarchy of nonlinear equations, the lowest member being the KdV equation.

Abstract:
It is shown by Barchini, Kable, and Zierau that conformally invariant systems of differential operators yield explicit homomorphisms between certain generalized Verma modules. In this paper we determine whether or not the homomorphisms arising from such systems of first and second order differential operators associated to maximal parabolic subalgebras of quasi-Heisenberg type are standard.

Abstract:
We construct vertex algebraic intertwining operators among certain generalized Verma modules for $\widehat{\mathfrak{sl}(2,\mathbb{C})}$ and calculate the corresponding fusion rules. Additionally, we show that under some conditions these intertwining operators descend to intertwining operators among one generalized Verma module and two (generally non-standard) irreducible modules. Our construction relies on the irreducibility of the maximal proper submodules of generalized Verma modules appearing in the Garland-Lepowsky resolutions of standard $\widehat{\mathfrak{sl}(2,\mathbb{C})}$-modules. We prove this irreducibility using the composition factor multiplicities of irreducible modules in Verma modules for symmetrizable Kac-Moody Lie algebras of rank $2$, given by Rocha-Caridi and Wallach.

Abstract:
We prove existence and uniqueness of a sequence of differential intertwining operators for spherical principal series representations, which are realized on boundaries of anti de Sitter spaces. Algebraically, these operators correspond to homomorphisms of generalized Verma modules. We relate these families to the asymptotics of eigenfunctions on anti de Sitter spaces.

Abstract:
In the present article, we combine some techniques in the harmonic analysis together with the geometric approach given by modules over sheaves of rings of twisted differential operators ($\mathcal{D}$-modules), and reformulate the composition series and branching problems for objects in the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand parabolic category $\mathcal{O}^\mathfrak{p}$ geometrically realized on certain orbits in the generalized flag manifolds. The general framework is then applied to the scalar generalized Verma modules supported on the closed Schubert cell of the generalized flag manifold $G/P$ for $G={\rm SL}(n+2,\mathbb{C})$ and $P$ the Heisenberg parabolic subgroup, and the algebraic analysis gives a complete classification of $\mathfrak{g}'_r$-singular vectors for all $\mathfrak{g}'_r=\mathfrak{sl}(n-r+2,\mathbb{C})\,\subset\, \mathfrak{g}=\mathfrak{sl}(n+2,\mathbb{C})$, $n-r > 2$. A consequence of our results is that we classify ${\rm SL}(n-r+2,\mathbb{C})$-covariant differential operators acting on homogeneous line bundles over the complexification of the odd dimensional CR-sphere $S^{2n+1}$ and valued in homogeneous vector bundles over the complexification of the CR-subspheres $S^{2(n-r)+1}$.

Abstract:
We initiate a new study of differential operators with symmetries and combine this with the study of branching laws for Verma modules of reductive Lie algebras. By the criterion for discretely decomposable and multiplicity-free restrictions of generalized Verma modules [T. Kobayashi, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00031-012-9180-y {Transf. Groups (2012)}], we are brought to natural settings of parabolic geometries for which there exist unique equivariant differential operators to submanifolds. Then we apply a new method (F-method) relying on the Fourier transform to find singular vectors in generalized Verma modules, which significantly simplifies and generalizes many preceding works. In certain cases, it also determines the Jordan--H\"older series of the restriction for singular parameters. The F-method yields an explicit formula of such unique operators, for example, giving an intrinsic and new proof of Juhl's conformally invariant differential operators [Juhl, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7643-9900-9 {Progr. Math. 2009}] and its generalizations. This article is the first in the series, and the next ones include their extension to curved cases together with more applications of the F-method to various settings in parabolic geometries.

Abstract:
In earlier work, Barchini, Kable, and Zierau constructed a number of conformally invariant systems of differential operators associated to Heisenberg parabolic subalgebras in simple Lie algebras. The construction was systematic, but the existence of such a system was left open in several anomalous cases. Here, a conformally invariant system is shown to exist in the most interesting of these remaining cases. The construction may also be interpreted as giving an explicit homomorphism between generalized Verma modules for the Lie algebra of type $D_4$.

Abstract:
In this paper we study the scalar generalized Verma module $M$ associated to a character of a parabolic subalgebra of $sl(E)$. Here $E$ is a finite dimensional vector space over an algebraically closed field $K$ of characteristic zero. The Verma module $M$ has a canonical simple quotient $L$ with a canonical filtration $F$. In the case when the quotient $L$ is finite dimensional we use left annihilator ideals in $U(sl(E))$ and geometric results on jet bundles to generalize to an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero a classical formula of W. Smoke on the structure of the jet bundle of a line bundle on an arbitrary quotient $SL(E)/P$ where $P$ is a parabolic subgroup of $SL(E)$. This formula was originally proved by Smoke in 1967 using analytic techniques.

Abstract:
In earlier work, Barchini, Kable, and Zierau constructed a number of conformally invariant systems of differential operators associated to Heisenberg parabolic subalgebras in simple Lie algebras. The construction was systematic, but the existence of such a system was left open in two cases, namely, the $\Omega_3$ system for type $A_2$ and type $D_4$. Here, such a system is shown to exist for both cases. The construction of the system may also be interpreted as giving an explicit homomorphism between generalized Verma modules.

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to initiate a study of the jet bundles on the grassmannian $X$ over a field of characteristic zero using higher direct images of $G$-linearized sheaves, Lie theoretic methods, enveloping algebra theoretic methods and generalized Verma modules. We calculate the $P$-module of the dual jet bundle $J^l(L)^*$ and prove it equals the $l$'th piece of the canonical filtration for $H^0(X,L)^*$. We use the results obtained to prove the discriminant of any linear system on any grassmannian is irreducible.