Abstract:
It is an open conjecture of Orlov that the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves of a smooth projective variety determines its Chow motive with rational coefficients. In this master's thesis we introduce a category of \emph{perfect correspondences}, whose objects are smooth projective varieties and morphisms $X \to Y$ are perfect complexes on $X \times Y$. We show that isomorphism in this category is the same as equivalence of derived categories, and use this to show that the derived category determines the noncommutative Chow motive (in the sense of Tabuada) and, up to Tate twists, the commutative Chow motive with rational coefficients. In particular, all additive invariants like K-theory and Hochschild or cyclic homology depend only on the derived category.

Abstract:
Making use of noncommutative motives we relate exceptional collections (and more generally semi-orthogonal decompositions) to motivic decompositions. On one hand we prove that the Chow motive M(X) of every smooth proper Deligne-Mumford stack X, whose bounded derived category D(X) of coherent schemes admits a full exceptional collection, decomposes into a direct sum of tensor powers of the Lefschetz motive. Examples include projective spaces, quadrics, toric varieties, homogeneous spaces, Fano threefolds, and moduli spaces. On the other hand we prove that if M(X) decomposes into a direct sum of tensor powers of the Lefschetz motive and moreover D(X) admits a semi-orthogonal decomposition, then the noncommutative motive of each one of the pieces of the semi-orthogonal decomposition is a direct sum of the tensor unit. As an application we obtain a simplification of Dubrovin's conjecture.

Abstract:
The Weil restriction functor, introduced in the late fifties, was recently extended by Karpenko to the category of Chow motives with integral coefficients. In this article we introduce the noncommutative (=NC) analogue of the Weil restriction functor, where schemes are replaced by dg algebras, and extend it to Kontsevich's categories of NC Chow motives and NC numerical motives. Instead of integer coefficients, we work more generally with coefficients in a binomial ring. Along the way, we extend Karpenko's functor to the classical category of numerical motives, and compare this extension with its NC analogue. As an application, we compute the (NC) Chow motive of the Weil restriction of every smooth projective scheme whose category of perfect complexes admits a full exceptional collection. Finally, in the case of central simple algebras, we describe explicitly the NC analogue of the Weil restriction functor using solely the degree of the field extension. This leads to a "categorification" of the classical corestriction homomorphism between Brauer groups.

Abstract:
The Beilinson-Bloch type conjectures predict that the low degree rational Chow groups of intersections of quadrics are one dimensional. This conjecture was proved by Otwinowska. Making use of homological projective duality and the recent theory of (Jacobians of) noncommutative Chow motives, we give an alternative proof of this conjecture in the case of a complete intersection of either two quadrics or three odd-dimensional quadrics. Moreover, without the use of the powerful Lefschetz theorem, we prove that in these cases the unique non-trivial algebraic Jacobian is the middle one. As an application, making use of Vial's work, we describe the rational Chow motives of these complete intersections and show that smooth fibrations in such complete intersections over small dimensional bases S verify Murre's conjecture (dim(S) less or equal to 1), Grothendieck's standard conjectures (dim(S) less of equal to 2), and Hodge's conjecture (dim(S) less or equal to 3).

Abstract:
In this paper, a generic intersection theorem in projective differential algebraic geometry is presented. Precisely, the intersection of an irreducible projective differential variety of dimension d>0 and order h with a generic projective differential hyperplane is shown to be an irreducible projective differential variety of dimension d-1 and order h. Based on the generic intersection theorem, the Chow form for an irreducible projective differential variety is defined and most of the properties of the differential Chow form in affine differential case are established for its projective differential counterpart. Finally, we apply the differential Chow form to a result of linear dependence over projective varieties given by Kolchin.

Abstract:
We show the existence of a regular universal quotient as a smooth commutative algebraic group of the Chow group of 0-cycles on a projective reduced variety, and give over the field of complex numbers an analytic description of it. This generalizes the classical theory of the Albanese. The Chow group of 0-cycles is then isomorphic to this smooth algebraic group if and only if it is finite dimensional in the sense of Mumford. This generalizes the classical theorem of Roitman.

Abstract:
I. Panin proved in the nineties that the algebraic K-theory of twisted projective homogeneous varieties can be expressed in terms of central simple algebras. Later, Merkurjev and Panin described the algebraic K-theory of toric varieties as a direct summand of the algebraic K-theory of separable algebras. In this article, making use of the recent theory of noncommutative motives, we extend Panin and Merkurjev-Panin computations from algebraic K-theory to every additive invariant. As a first application, we fully compute the cyclic homology (and all its variants) of twisted projective homogeneous varieties. As a second application, we show that the noncommutative motive of a twisted projective homogeneous variety is trivial if and only if the Brauer classes of the associated central simple algebras are trivial. Along the way we construct a fully-faithful tensor functor from Merkurjev-Panin's motivic category to Kontsevich's category of noncommutative Chow motives, which is of independent interest.

Abstract:
We consider proper, algebraic semismall maps f from a complex algebraic manifold X. We show that the topological Decomposition Theorem implies a "motivic" decomposition theorem for the rational algebraic cycles of X and, in the case X is compact, for the Chow motive of X.The result is a Chow-theoretic analogue of Borho-MacPherson's observation concerning the cohomology of the fibers and their relation to the relevant strata for f. Under suitable assumptions on the stratification, we prove an explicit version of the motivic decomposition theorem. The assumptions are fulfilled in many cases of interest, e.g. in connection with resolutions of orbifolds and of some configuration spaces. We compute the Chow motives and groups in some of these cases, e.g. the nested Hilbert schemes of points of a surface. In an appendix with T. Mochizuki, we do the same for the parabolic Hilbert scheme of points on a surface. The results above hold for mixed Hodge structures and explain, in some cases, the equality between orbifold Betti/Hodge numbers and ordinary Betti/Hodge numbers for the crepant semismall resolutions in terms of the existence of a natural map of mixed Hodge structures. Most results hold over an algebraically closed field and in the Kaehler context.

Abstract:
In this paper we compute the integral Chow ring of the stack of smooth uniform cyclic covers of the projective line and we give explicit generators.