Abstract:
We study the properties of localized vibrational modes associated with structural defects in a sheet of graphene. For the example of the Stone-Wales defects, one- and two-atom vacancies, many-atom linear vacancies, and adatoms in a honeycomb lattice, we demonstrate that the local defect modes are characterized by stable oscillations with the frequencies lying outside the linear frequency bands of an ideal graphene. In the frequency spectral density of thermal oscillations, such localized defect modes lead to the additional peaks from the right side of the frequency band of the ideal sheet of graphene. Thus, the general structure of the frequency spectral density can provide a fingerprint of its quality and the type of quantity of the structural defect a graphene sheet may contain.

Abstract:
We investigate nonlinear localized modes at light-mass impurities in a one-dimensional, strongly-compressed chain of beads under Hertzian contacts. Focusing on the case of one or two such "defects", we analyze the problem's linear limit to identify the system eigenfrequencies and the linear defect modes. We then examine the bifurcation of nonlinear defect modes from their linear counterparts and study their linear stability in detail. We identify intriguing differences between the case of impurities in contact and ones that are not in contact. We find that the former bears similarities to the single defect case, whereas the latter features symmetry-breaking bifurcations with interesting static and dynamic implications.

Abstract:
We study defect modes of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with a localized defect within the framework of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. It is shown that for a significant range of parameters the defect modes can be accurately described by an expansion over Wannier functions, whose envelope is governed by the coupled nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equation with a delta-impurity. The stability of the defect modes is verified by direct numerical simulations of the underlying Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a periodic plus defect potentials. We also discuss possibilities of driving defect modes through the lattice and suggest ideas for their experimental generation.

Abstract:
We study light localization at a phase-slip defect created by two semi-infinite mismatched identical arrays of coupled optical waveguides. We demonstrate that the nonlinear defect modes possess the specific properties of both nonlinear surface modes and discrete solitons. We analyze stability of the localized modes and their generation in both linear and nonlinear regimes.

Abstract:
Let $Q(x)$ denote a periodic function on the real line. The Schr\"odinger operator, $H_Q=-\partial_x^2+Q(x)$, has $L^2(\mathbb{R})-$ spectrum equal to the union of closed real intervals separated by open spectral gaps. In this article we study the bifurcation of discrete eigenvalues (point spectrum) into the spectral gaps for the operator $H_{Q+q_\epsilon}$, where $q_\epsilon$ is spatially localized and highly oscillatory in the sense that its Fourier transform, $\widehat{q}_\epsilon$ is concentrated at high frequencies. Our assumptions imply that $q_\epsilon$ may be pointwise large but $q_\epsilon$ is small in an average sense. For the special case where $q_\epsilon(x)=q(x,x/\epsilon)$ with $q(x,y)$ smooth, real-valued, localized in $x$, and periodic or almost periodic in $y$, the bifurcating eigenvalues are at a distance of order $\epsilon^4$ from the lower edge of the spectral gap. We obtain the leading order asymptotics of the bifurcating eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Underlying this bifurcation is an effective Hamiltonian associated with the lower edge of the $(b_*)^{\rm th}$ spectral band: $H^\epsilon_{\rm eff}=-\partial_x A_{b_*,\rm eff}\partial_x - \epsilon^2 B_{b_*,\rm eff} \times \delta(x)$ where $\delta(x)$ is the Dirac distribution, and effective-medium parameters $A_{b_*,\rm eff},B_{b_*,\rm eff}>0$ are explicit and independent of $\epsilon$. The potentials we consider are a natural model for wave propagation in a medium with localized, high-contrast and rapid fluctuations in material parameters about a background periodic medium.

Abstract:
MD simulations of recoil processes following the scattering of X-rays or neutrons have been performed in ionic crystals and metals. At small energies (<10 eV) the recoil can induce intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) and linear local modes associated with them. As a rule, the frequencies of such modes are located in the gaps of the phonon spectrum. However, in metallic Ni, Nb and Fe, due to the renormalization of atomic interactions by free electrons, the frequencies mentioned are found to be positioned above the phonon spectrum. It has been shown that these ILMs are highly mobile and can efficiently transfer a concentrated vibrational energy to large distances along crystallographic directions. If the recoil energy exceeds tens of eVs, vacancies and interstitials can be formed, being strongly dependent on the direction of the recoil momentum. In NaCl-type lattices the recoil in (110) direction can produce a vacancy and a crowdion, while in the case of a recoil in (100) and in (111) directions a bi-vacancy and a crowdion can be formed.

Abstract:
Single-negative materials based on photonic crystal with multiple defect layers are designed and the free modulation of defect modes is studied. The results show that the multi-defect structure can avoid the interference between the defect states. Therefore, the designed double defect modes in the zero effective-phase gap can be adjusted independently by changingthe thickness of different defect layers. In addition, the two tunable defect modes have the omnidirectional characteristics. This multi-defect structure with above-mentioned two advantages has potential applications in modern optical devices such as tunable omnidirectional filters.

Abstract:
Real magnonic crystals - periodic magnetic media for spin wave (magnon) propagation - may contain some defects. We report theoretical spin wave spectra of a one dimensional magnonic crystal with an isolated defect. The latter is modeled by insertion of an additional layer with thickness and magnetic anisotropy values different from those of the magnonic crystal constituent layers. The defect layer leads to appearance of several localized defect modes within the magnonic band gaps. The frequency and the number of the defect modes may be controlled by varying parameters of the constituent layers of the magnonic crystal.

Abstract:
We provide the first experimental demonstration of defect states in parity-time (PT) symmetric mesh-periodic potentials. Our results indicate that these localized modes can undergo an abrupt phase transition in spite of the fact that they remain localized in a PT-symmetric periodic environment. Even more intriguing is the possibility of observing a linearly growing radiation emission from such defects provided their eigenvalue is associated with an exceptional point that resides within the continuum part of the spectrum. Localized complex modes existing outside the band-gap regions are also reported along with their evolution dynamics.

Abstract:
Complex Band Structures and Multiple Scattering Theory have been used in this paper to analyze the overlapping of the evanescent waves localized in point defects in Sonic Crystals. The Extended Plane Wave Expansion (EPWE) with supercell approximation gives the imaginary part of the Bloch vectors that produces the decay of the localized modes inside the periodic system. Double-cavities can present a coupling between the evanescent modes localized in the defect, showing a symmetric or antisymmetric modes. When point defects are close, the complex band structures reveal a splitting of the frequencies of the localized modes. Both the real part and the imaginary values of wave vector of the localized modes in the cavities present different values for each localized mode, which gives different properties for each mode. Novel measurements, in very good agreement with analytical data, show the experimental evidences of the symmetric and antisymmetric localized modes for a double-point defect in Sonic Crystals (SC). The investigation on the localization phenomena and the coupling between defects in periodic systems has a fundamental importance both in pure and in applied physics.