Abstract:
Cellular systems that employ time division duplexing (TDD) transmission are good candidates for implementation of interference alignment (IA) in the downlink since channel reciprocity enables the estimation of the channel state by the base stations (BS) in the uplink phase. However, the interfering BSs need to share their channel estimates via backhaul links of finite capacity. A quantization scheme is proposed which reduces the amount of information exchange (compared to conventional methods) required to achieve IA in a TDD system. The scaling (with the transmit power) of the number of bits to be exchanged between the BSs that is sufficient to preserve the multiplexing gain of IA is derived.

Abstract:
This paper proposes an interference alignment method with distributed and delayed channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) for a class of interference networks. The core idea of the proposed method is to align interference signals over time at the unintended receivers in a distributed manner. With the proposed method, achievable trade-offs between the sum of degrees of freedom (sum-DoF) and feedback delay of CSI are characterized in both the X-channel and three-user interference channel to reveal the impact on how the CSI feedback delay affects the sum-DoF of the interference networks. A major implication of derived results is that distributed and moderately- delayed CSIT is useful to strictly improve the sum-DoF over the case of no CSI at the transmitter in a certain class of interference networks. For a class of X-channels, the results show how to optimally use distributed and moderately-delayed CSIT to yield the same sum-DoF as instantaneous and global CSIT. Further, leveraging the proposed transmission method and the known outer bound results, the sum-capacity of the two-user X-channel with a particular set of channel coefficients is characterized within a constant number of bits.

Abstract:
In this work, we consider the use of interference alignment (IA) in a MIMO interference channel (IC) under the assumption that each transmitter (TX) has access to channel state information (CSI) that generally differs from that available to other TXs. This setting is referred to as distributed CSIT. In a setting where CSI accuracy is controlled by a set of power exponents, we show that in the static 3-user MIMO square IC, the number of degrees-of-freedom (DoF) that can be achieved with distributed CSIT is at least equal to the DoF achieved with the worst accuracy taken across the TXs and across the interfering links. We conjecture further that this represents exactly the DoF achieved. This result is in strong contrast with the centralized CSIT configuration usually studied (where all the TXs share the same, possibly imperfect, channel estimate) for which it was shown that the DoF achieved at receiver (RX) i is solely limited by the quality of its own feedback. This shows the critical impact of CSI discrepancies between the TXs, and highlights the price paid by distributed precoding.

Abstract:
We consider the MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) Gaussian interference channel with i.i.d. fading across antennas and channel uses and with the delayed local channel state information at the transmitters (CSIT). For the two-user case, achievability results for the degrees of freedom (DoF) region of this channel are provided. We also prove the tightness of our achievable DoF region for some antenna configurations. Interestingly, there are some cases in which the DoF region with delayed local CSIT is identical to the DoF region with perfect CSIT and that is strictly larger than the DoF region with no CSIT. We then consider the $K$-user MISO (multiple-input single-output) IC and show that the degrees of freedom of this channel could be greater than one with delayed local CSIT.

Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new retrospective interference alignment for two-cell multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) interfering multiple access channels (IMAC) with the delayed channel state information at the transmitters (CSIT). It is shown that having delayed CSIT can strictly increase the sum-DoF compared to the case of no CSIT. The key idea is to align multiple interfering signals from adjacent cells onto a small dimensional subspace over time by fully exploiting the previously received signals as side information with outdated CSIT in a distributed manner. Remarkably, we show that the retrospective interference alignment can achieve the optimal sum-DoF in the context of two-cell two-user scenario by providing a new outer bound.

Abstract:
We explore 5 network communication problems where the possibility of interference alignment, and consequently the total number of degrees of freedom (DoF) with channel uncertainty at the transmitters are unknown. These problems share the common property that in each case the best known outer bounds are essentially robust to channel uncertainty and represent the outcome with interference alignment, but the best inner bounds -- in some cases conjectured to be optimal -- predict a total collapse of DoF, thus indicating the infeasibility of interference alignment under channel uncertainty at transmitters. Our main contribution is to show that even with no knowledge of channel coefficient values at the transmitters, the knowledge of the channels' correlation structure can be exploited to achieve interference alignment. In each case, we show that under a staggered block fading model, the transmitters are able to align interference without the knowledge of channel coefficient values. The alignment schemes are based on linear beamforming -- which can be seen as a repetition code over a small number of symbols -- and involve delays of only a few coherence intervals.

Abstract:
The degrees of freedom (DoF) of the 3-user multiple input multiple output interference channel (3-user MIMO IC) are investigated where there is delayed channel state information at the transmitters (dCSIT). We generalize the ideas of Maleki et al. about {\it Retrospective Interference Alignment (RIA)} to be applied to the MIMO IC, where transmitters and receivers are equipped with $(M,N)$ antennas, respectively. We propose a two-phase transmission scheme where the number of slots per phase and number of transmitted symbols are optimized by solving a maximization problem. Finally, we review the existing achievable DoF results in the literature as a function of the ratio between transmitting and receiving antennas $\rho=M/N$. The proposed scheme improves all other strategies when $\rho \in \left(\frac{1}{2}, \frac{31}{32} \right]$.

Abstract:
The degrees of freedom (DoF) of an X-network with M transmit and N receive nodes utilizing interference alignment with the support of $J$ relays each equipped with $L_j$ antennas operating in a half-duplex non-regenerative mode is investigated. Conditions on the feasibility of interference alignment are derived using a proper transmit strategy and a structured approach based on a Kronecker-product representation. The advantages of this approach are twofold: First, it extends existing results on the achievable DoF to generalized antenna configurations. Second, it unifies the analysis for time-varying and constant channels and provides valuable insights and interconnections between the two channel models. It turns out that a DoF of $\nicefrac{NM}{M+N-1}$ is feasible whenever the sum of the $L_j^2 \geq [N-1][M-1]$.

Abstract:
We explore similarities and differences in recent works on blind interference alignment under different models such as staggered block fading model and the delayed CSIT model. In particular we explore the possibility of achieving interference alignment with delayed CSIT when the transmitters are distributed. Our main contribution is an interference alignment scheme, called retrospective interference alignment in this work, that is specialized to settings with distributed transmitters. With this scheme we show that the 2 user X channel with only delayed channel state information at the transmitters can achieve 8/7 DoF, while the interference channel with 3 users is able to achieve 9/8 DoF. We also consider another setting where delayed channel output feedback is available to transmitters. In this setting the X channel and the 3 user interference channel are shown to achieve 4/3 and 6/5 DoF, respectively.

Abstract:
The degrees of freedom (DoF) region of the two-user MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) interference channel is established under a new model termed as hybrid CSIT. In this model, one transmitter has delayed channel state information (CSI) and the other transmitter has instantaneous CSIT, of incoming channel matrices at the respective unpaired receivers, and neither transmitter has any knowledge of the incoming channel matrices of its respective paired receiver. The DoF region for hybrid CSIT, and consequently that of $2\times2\times3^{5}$ CSIT models, is completely characterized, and a new achievable scheme based on a combination of transmit beamforming and retrospective interference alignment is developed. Conditions are obtained on the numbers of antennas at each of the four terminals such that the DoF region under hybrid CSIT is equal to that under (a) global and instantaneous CSIT and (b) global and delayed CSIT, with the remaining cases resulting in a DoF region with hybrid CSIT that lies somewhere in between the DoF regions under the instantaneous and delayed CSIT settings. Further synergistic benefits accruing from switching between the two hybrid CSIT models are also explored.