Abstract:
The exceptional Dehn filling conjecture of the second author concerning the relationship between exceptional slopes $\alpha, \beta$ on the boundary of a hyperbolic knot manifold $M$ has been verified in all cases other than small Seifert filling slopes. In this paper we verify it when $\alpha$ is a small Seifert filling slope and $\beta$ is a toroidal filling slope in the generic case where $M$ admits no punctured-torus fibre or semi-fibre, and there is no incompressible torus in $M(\beta)$ which intersects $\partial M$ in one or two components. Under these hypotheses we show that $\Delta(\alpha, \beta) \leq 5$. Our proof is based on an analysis of the relationship between the topology of $M$, the combinatorics of the intersection graph of an immersed disk or torus in $M(\alpha)$, and the two sequences of characteristic subsurfaces associated to an essential punctured torus properly embedded in $M$.

Abstract:
In this paper we give a method, based on the characteristic function of a set, to solve some difficult problems of set theory in undergraduate research.

Abstract:
The Levi geometry at weakly pseudoconvex boundary points of domains in C^n, n \geq 3, is sufficiently complicated that there are no universal model domains with which to compare a general domain. Good models may be constructed by bumping outward a pseudoconvex, finite-type \Omega \subset C^3 in such a way that: i) pseudoconvexity is preserved, ii) the (locally) larger domain has a simpler defining function, and iii) the lowest possible orders of contact of the bumped domain with \bdy\Omega, at the site of the bumping, are realised. When \Omega \subset C^n, n\geq 3, it is, in general, hard to meet the last two requirements. Such well-controlled bumping is possible when \Omega is h-extendible/semiregular. We examine a family of domains in C^3 that is strictly larger than the family of h-extendible/semiregular domains and construct explicit models for these domains by bumping.

Abstract:
We wish to study the problem of bumping outwards a pseudoconvex, finite-type domain \Omega\subset C^n in such a way that pseudoconvexity is preserved and such that the lowest possible orders of contact of the bumped domain with bdy(\Omega), at the site of the bumping, are explicitly realised. Generally, when \Omega\subset C^n, n\geq 3, the known methods lead to bumpings with high orders of contact -- which are not explicitly known either -- at the site of the bumping. Precise orders are known for h-extendible/semiregular domains. This paper is motivated by certain families of non-semiregular domains in C^3. These families are identified by the behaviour of the least-weight plurisubharmonic polynomial in the Catlin normal form. Accordingly, we study how to perturb certain homogeneous plurisubharmonic polynomials without destroying plurisubharmonicity.

Abstract:
In this work we study the wavefront set of a solution u to Pu = f, where P is a pseudodifferential operator on a manifold with real-valued homogeneous principal symbol p, when the Hamilton vector field corresponding to p is radial on a Lagrangian submanifold contained in the characteristic set of P. The standard propagation of singularities theorem of Duistermaat-Hormander gives no information at the Lagrangian submanifold. By adapting the standard positive-commutator estimate proof of this theorem, we are able to conclude additional regularity at a point q in this radial set, assuming some regularity around this point. That is, the a priori assumption is either a weaker regularity assumption at q, or a regularity assumption near but not at q. Earlier results of Melrose and Vasy give a more global version of such analysis. Given some regularity assumptions around the Lagrangian submanifold, they obtain some regularity at the Lagrangian submanifold. This paper microlocalizes these results, assuming and concluding regularity only at a particular point of interest. We then proceed to prove an analogous result, useful in scattering theory, followed by analogous results in the context of Lagrangian regularity.

Abstract:
A brief introduction to the characteristic set method is given for solving algebraic equation systems and then the method is extended to algebraic difference systems. The method can be used to decompose the zero set for a difference polynomial set in general form to the union of difference polynomial sets in triangular form. Based on the characteristic set method, a decision procedure for the first order theory over an algebraically closed field and a procedure to prove certain difference identities are proposed.

Abstract:
One of the most useful tools for studying the geometry of the mapping class group has been the subsurface projections of Masur and Minsky. Here we propose an analogue for the study of the geometry of Out(F_n) called submanifold projection. We use the doubled handlebody M_n = #^n S^2 \times S^1 as a geometric model of F_n, and consider essential embedded 2-spheres in M_n, isotopy classes of which can be identified with free splittings of the free group. We interpret submanifold projection in the context of the sphere complex (also known as the splitting complex). We prove that submanifold projection satisfies a number of desirable properties, including a Behrstock inequality and a Bounded Geodesic Image theorem. Our proof of the latter relies on a method of canonically visualizing one sphere `with respect to' another given sphere, which we call a sphere tree. Sphere trees are related to Hatcher normal form for spheres, and coincide with an interpretation of certain slices of a Guirardel core.

Abstract:
In this paper,by use of Wu-Ritts principle,the characteristic set of elementarysymmetric systems is obtained.This characteristic set is proved to be irreducible.