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Output, Income and Employment Multipliers in Malaysian Economy: Input-Output Approach  [cached]
HUSSAIN ALI BEKHET
International Business Research , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v4n1p208
Abstract: This study attempts to investigate the success or failure development policies for Malaysia economy through the multipliers indices over the period 1983-2000. We used four input-output tables had published so far by Department Statistics of Malaysia (DSOM) for the period under study. The study employed the Leontief inverse model that is open with respect to household for simple multipliers of the output, income and employment; type I multipliers of the income and employment. While it used Leontief inverse model that is closed with respect to household for total multipliers of the output, income and employment; type II multipliers of the income and employment. New evidence is found in this study: first, there is still a high dependency on the primary sectors, such us Oil palm, Rubber primary products and Wood sectors. Second, output and income multipliers for Agriculture sector are still very weak even where some success has resulted from planning policies. Third, the main result of the investment policy was to transform Malaysia from a country of surplus labour to one with a shortage. Fourth, there is no consideration of efficiency or comparative cost in the selection of ‘key’ sectors by reference to multiplier indices.
Ranking Sectors Changes of the Malaysian Economy: Input-Output Approach  [cached]
HUSSAIN ALI BEKHET
International Business Research , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v3n1p107
Abstract: This study attempts to re-investigate the production structure change for Malaysia economy through the ranking sectors changes over the period 1983-2000. We used four input-output tables had published so far by Department Statistics of Malaysia (DSOM) for the period under study. The study employed the Leontief model for demand side (Input inverse (I-A)-1) for forward linkages indices, while supply side (Output Inverse, (I-O)-1) for backward linkages indices to examine the ranking sectors structure changes. New evidence is found in this study: first, the integration degree between demand and supply side for the Malaysian economy still remain weak. Second, the rank correlation coefficients between forward and backward indices are not significant and very weak. Third, the linkages between the commodities sectors and the rest of the economy still remain weak. Fourth, there is still a high dependency on the primary sectors, such us Oil palm, Rubber primary products and Wood sectors. Finally, fifth, the main results of the development policies were to transform Malaysia from an exporter to an importer foodstuff and other agriculture products.
TOURISM AND ITS IMPACT UPON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY: AN INPUT-OUTPUT APPROACH
Camelia SURUGIU,Cristi FREN?,Marius SURUGIU
Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi : Economic Sciences Series , 2009,
Abstract: In different countries around the world, tourism is struggling to sustain economic growth in a sustainable manner. Even if Romania has an important tourism potential, in the last nineteenth years tourism didn’t contribute of more than 2-3% to the national GDP. In terms of non-monetary indicators (arrivals, overnight stays, occupancy rates, average length of stay) tourism has registered a significant decline comparing with the reference year 1990. Using Input-Output analysis, known as being a useful, efficient and trustable instrument, tourism contribution to the Romanian economy was measured. The Input-Output model synthesizes the intersectoral relationships existing between hotels, restaurants and travel agencies and other economic sectors and also might predict the effects generated by different changes that could take place in an economy. Backward and forward linkages are used to describe how the increase in the production of tourism sector generates an increase in the demand for inputs from other sectors in the economy and respectively in the supply to other economic sectors. These linkages provide a general image of how tourism sector might sustain the economic growth in Romania.
Perfect Output Feedback in the Two-User Decentralized Interference Channel  [PDF]
Samir M. Perlaza,Ravi Tandon,H. Vincent Poor,Zhu Han
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper, the $\eta$-Nash equilibrium ($\eta$-NE) region of the two-user Gaussian interference channel (IC) with perfect output feedback is approximated to within $1$ bit/s/Hz and $\eta$ arbitrarily close to $1$ bit/s/Hz. The relevance of the $\eta$-NE region is that it provides the set of rate-pairs that are achievable and stable in the IC when both transmitter-receiver pairs autonomously tune their own transmit-receive configurations seeking an $\eta$-optimal individual transmission rate. Therefore, any rate tuple outside the $\eta$-NE region is not stable as there always exists one link able to increase by at least $\eta$ bits/s/Hz its own transmission rate by updating its own transmit-receive configuration. The main insights that arise from this work are: $(i)$ The $\eta$-NE region achieved with feedback is larger than or equal to the $\eta$-NE region without feedback. More importantly, for each rate pair achievable at an $\eta$-NE without feedback, there exists at least one rate pair achievable at an $\eta$-NE with feedback that is weakly Pareto superior. $(ii)$ There always exists an $\eta$-NE transmit-receive configuration that achieves a rate pair that is at most $1$ bit/s/Hz per user away from the outer bound of the capacity region.
Two-User Gaussian Interference Channel with Finite Constellation Input and FDMA  [PDF]
G. Abhinav,B. Sundar Rajan
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: In the two-user Gaussian Strong Interference Channel (GSIC) with finite constellation inputs, it is known that relative rotation between the constellations of the two users enlarges the Constellation Constrained (CC) capacity region. In this paper, a metric for finding the approximate angle of rotation (with negligibly small error) to maximally enlarge the CC capacity for the two-user GSIC is presented. In the case of Gaussian input alphabets with equal powers for both the users and the modulus of both the cross-channel gains being equal to unity, it is known that the FDMA rate curve touches the capacity curve of the GSIC. It is shown that, with unequal powers for both the users also, when the modulus of one of the cross-channel gains being equal to one and the modulus of the other cross-channel gain being greater than or equal to one, the FDMA rate curve touches the capacity curve of the GSIC. On the contrary, it is shown that, under finite constellation inputs, with both the users using the same constellation, the FDMA rate curve strictly lies within (never touches) the enlarged CC capacity region throughout the strong-interference regime. This means that using FDMA it is impossible to go close to the CC capacity. It is well known that for the Gaussian input alphabets, the FDMA inner-bound, at the optimum sum-rate point, is always better than the simultaneous-decoding inner-bound throughout the weak-interference regime. For a portion of the weak interference regime, it is shown that with identical finite constellation inputs for both the users, the simultaneous-decoding inner-bound, enlarged by relative rotation between the constellations, is strictly better than the FDMA inner-bound.
Capacity of All Nine Models of Channel Output Feedback for the Two-user Interference Channel  [PDF]
Achaleshwar Sahai,Vaneet Aggarwal,Melda Yuksel,Ashutosh Sabharwal
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2013.2278691
Abstract: In this paper, we study the impact of different channel output feedback architectures on the capacity of the two-user interference channel. For a two-user interference channel, a feedback link can exist between receivers and transmitters in 9 canonical architectures (see Fig. 2), ranging from only one feedback link to four feedback links. We derive the exact capacity region for the symmetric deterministic interference channel and the constant-gap capacity region for the symmetric Gaussian interference channel for all of the 9 architectures. We show that for a linear deterministic symmetric interference channel, in the weak interference regime, all models of feedback, except the one, which has only one of the receivers feeding back to its own transmitter, have the identical capacity region. When only one of the receivers feeds back to its own transmitter, the capacity region is a strict subset of the capacity region of the rest of the feedback models in the weak interference regime. However, the sum-capacity of all feedback models is identical in the weak interference regime. Moreover, in the strong interference regime all models of feedback with at least one of the receivers feeding back to its own transmitter have the identical sum-capacity. For the Gaussian interference channel, the results of the linear deterministic model follow, where capacity is replaced with approximate capacity.
On the Degrees of Freedom of $K$-User SISO Interference and X Channels with Delayed CSIT  [PDF]
Mohammad Javad Abdoli,Akbar Ghasemi,Amir Keyvan Khandani
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2013.2268154
Abstract: The $K$-user single-input single-output (SISO) AWGN interference channel and $2\times K$ SISO AWGN X channel are considered where the transmitters have the delayed channel state information (CSI) through noiseless feedback links. Multi-phase transmission schemes are proposed for both channels which possess novel ingredients, namely, multi-phase partial interference nulling, distributed interference management via user scheduling, and distributed higher-order symbol generation. The achieved degrees of freedom (DoF) values are greater than the best previously known DoFs for both channels with delayed CSI at transmitters.
An Improved Interference Cancellation Scheme for Two-User MIMO-MAC  [PDF]
Xinji Tian,Cheng Song
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2013,
Abstract: Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) Multiple Access Channels (MAC) for two-user suffers from co-channel interference. For this problem, an interference cancellation scheme based on limited feedback is proposed. Through diagonalization processing for transmitted signals according to feedback information, the co-channel interference is eliminated. Not only the reliability is improved, but also each signal can be Maximum Likelihood (ML) decoded separately. Simulation results show that, compared to the existing interference cancellation scheme, the gain of the proposed scheme is 2dB at the Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-3.
On the Achievable DoF and User Scaling Law of Opportunistic Interference Alignment in 3-Transmitter MIMO Interference Channels  [PDF]
Jung Hoon Lee,Wan Choi
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2013.041713.120773
Abstract: In this paper, we propose opportunistic interference alignment (OIA) schemes for three-transmitter multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) interference channels (ICs). In the proposed OIA, each transmitter has its own user group and selects a single user who has the most aligned interference signals. The user dimensions provided by multiple users are exploited to align interfering signals. Contrary to conventional IA, perfect channel state information of all channel links is not required at the transmitter, and each user just feeds back one scalar value to indicate how well the interfering channels are aligned. We prove that each transmitter can achieve the same degrees of freedom (DoF) as the interference free case via user selection in our system model that the number of receive antennas is twice of the number of transmit antennas. Using the geometric interpretation, we find the required user scaling to obtain an arbitrary non-zero DoF. Two OIA schemes are proposed and compared with various user selection schemes in terms of achievable rate/DoF and complexity.
Performance Improvement of Multi-User Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Protocol for WLAN  [PDF]
Maha Bakalla, Mznah Al-Rodhaan, Yuan Tian
Communications and Network (CN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2017.92008
Abstract: The increase in the number of devices with a massive revolution in mobile technology leads to increase the capacity of the wireless communications net-works. Multi-user Multiple-Input Multiple-Output is an advanced procedure of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output, which improves the performance of Wireless Local Area Networks. Moreover, Multi-user Multiple-Input Multiple-Output leads the Wireless Local Area Networks toward covering more areas. Due to the growth of the number of clients and requirements, researchers try to improve the performance of the Medium Access Control protocol of Multi-user Multiple-Input Multiple-Output technology to serve the user better, by supporting different data sizes, and reducing the waiting time to be able to transmit data quickly. In this paper, we propose a Clustering Multi-user Multiple-Input Multiple-Output protocol, which is an improved Medium Access Control protocol for Multi-user Multiple-Input Multiple-Out-put based on MIMOMate clustering technique and Padovan Backoff Algorithm. Utilizing MIMOMMate focuses on the signal power which only serves the user in that cluster, minimizes the energy consumption and increases the capacity. The implementation of Clustering Multi-user Multiple-Input Multiple-Output performs on the Network Simulator (NS2.34) platform. The results show that Clustering Multi-user Multiple-Input Multiple-Output protocol improves the throughput by 89.8%, and reduces the latency of wireless communication by 43.9% in scenarios with contention. As a result, the overall performances of the network are improved.
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