Abstract:
We study the change of moduli spaces of Gieseker-semistable torsion free rank-$2$ sheaves on algebraic surfaces as we vary the polarizations. When the surfaces are rational with an effective anti-canonical divisor, the moduli spaces are linked by a series of flips (blowups and blowdowns). Using these results, we compute the transition formulas for Donaldson polynomial invariants of rational surfaces. Part of the work is also obtained independently by Matsuki-Wentworth and Ellingsrud-G{\" o}ttsche.

Abstract:
We prove that Donaldson-Thomas type invariants are equal to weighted Euler characteristics of their moduli spaces. In particular, such invariants depend only on the scheme structure of the moduli space, not the symmetric obstruction theory used to define them. We also introduce new invariants generalizing Donaldson-Thomas type invariants to moduli problems with open moduli space. These are useful for computing Donaldson-Thomas type invariants over stratifications.

Abstract:
The present paper is an extension of a previous paper written in collaboration with Markus Reineke dealing with quiver representations. The aim of the paper is to generalize the theory and to provide a comprehensive theory of Donaldson-Thomas invariants for abelian categories of homological dimension one (without potential) satisfying some technical conditions. The theory will apply for instance to representations of quivers, coherent sheaves on smooth projective curves, and some coherent sheaves on smooth projective surfaces. We show that the (motivic) Donaldson-Thomas invariants satisfy the Integrality conjecture and identify the Hodge theoretic version with the (compactly supported) intersection cohomology of the corresponding moduli spaces of objects. In fact, we deal with a refined version of Donaldson-Thomas invariants which can be interpreted as classes in the Grothendieck group of some "sheaf" on the moduli space. In particular, we reproduce the intersection complex of moduli spaces using Donaldson-Thomas theory.

Abstract:
This is a survey of the book arXiv:0810.5645 with Yinan Song. Let X be a Calabi-Yau 3-fold over C. The Donaldson-Thomas invariants of X are integers DT^a(t) which count stable sheaves with Chern character a on X, with respect to a Gieseker stability condition t. They are defined only for Chern characters a for which there are no strictly semistable sheaves on X. They have the good property that they are unchanged under deformations of X. Their behaviour under change of stability condition t was not understood until now. We discuss "generalized Donaldson-Thomas invariants" \bar{DT}^a(t). These are rational numbers, defined for all Chern characters a, and are equal to DT^a(t) if there are no strictly semistable sheaves in class a. They are deformation-invariant, and have a known transformation law under change of stability condition. We conjecture they can be written in terms of integral "BPS invariants" \hat{DT}^a(t) when the stability condition t is "generic". We extend the theory to abelian categories of representations of a quiver with relations coming from a superpotential, and connect our ideas with Szendroi's "noncommutative Donaldson-Thomas invariants" and work by Reineke and others. There is significant overlap between arXiv:0810.5645 and the independent paper arXiv:0811.2435 by Kontsevich and Soibelman.

Abstract:
We prove a comparison formula for the Donaldson-Thomas curve-counting invariants of two smooth and projective Calabi-Yau threefolds related by a flop. By results of Bridgeland any two such varieties are derived equivalent. Furthermore there exist pairs of categories of perverse coherent sheaves on both sides which are swapped by this equivalence. Using the theory developed by Joyce we construct the motivic Hall algebras of these categories. These algebras provide a bridge relating the invariants on both sides of the flop.

Abstract:
We established a relation between elliptic Gromov-Witten invariants of a symplectic manifold M and its blowups along smooth curves and surfaces.

Abstract:
We present a construction of Donaldson-Thomas invariants for three-dimensional projective Calabi-Yau Deligne-Mumford stacks. We also study the structure of these invariants for etale gerbes over such stacks.

Abstract:
Let $G\subset SL_2(C)\subset SL_3(C)$ be a finite group. We compute motivic Pandharipande-Thomas and Donaldson-Thomas invariants of the crepant resolution $Hilb^G(C^3)$ of $C^3/G$ generalizing results of Gholampour and Jiang who computed numerical DT/PT invariants using localization techniques. Our formulas rely on the computation of motivic Donaldson-Thomas invariants for a special class of quivers with potentials. We show that these motivic Donaldson-Thomas invariants are closely related to the polynomials counting absolutely indecomposable quiver representations over finite fields introduced by Kac. We formulate a conjecture on the positivity of Donaldson-Thomas invariants for a broad class of quivers with potentials. This conjecture, if true, implies the Kac positivity conjecture for arbitrary quivers.

Abstract:
We study higher rank Donaldson-Thomas invariants of a Calabi-Yau 3-fold using Joyce-Song's wall-crossing formula. We construct quivers whose counting invariants coincide with the Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As a corollary, we prove the integrality and a certain symmetry for the higher rank invariants.