Abstract:
We study the nonnegative part B_{\ge 0} of the flag variety of a reductive algebraic group G, as defined by Lusztig. Using positivity properties of the canonical basis it is shown that B_{\ge 0} has an algebraic cell decomposition indexed by pairs w\le w' of the Weyl group. This result was conjectired by Lusztig in [Lu; Progress in Math 123].

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider systems of algebraic and non-linear partial differential equations and inequations. We decompose these systems into so-called simple subsystems and thereby partition the set of solutions. For algebraic systems, simplicity means triangularity, square-freeness and non-vanishing initials. Differential simplicity extends algebraic simplicity with involutivity. We build upon the constructive ideas of J. M. Thomas and develop them into a new algorithm for disjoint decomposition. The given paper is a revised version of a previous paper and includes the proofs of correctness and termination of our decomposition algorithm. In addition, we illustrate the algorithm with further instructive examples and describe its Maple implementation together with an experimental comparison to some other triangular decomposition algorithms.

Abstract:
The nearest point map of a real algebraic variety with respect to Euclidean distance is an algebraic function. For instance, for varieties of low rank matrices, the Eckart-Young Theorem states that this map is given by the singular value decomposition. This article develops a theory of such nearest point maps from the perspective of computational algebraic geometry. The Euclidean distance degree of a variety is the number of critical points of the squared distance to a generic point outside the variety. Focusing on varieties seen in applications, we present numerous tools for exact computations.

Abstract:
It is shown that to every Q-linear cycle \bar\alpha modulo numerical equivalence on an abelian variety A there is canonically associated a Q-linear cycle \alpha modulo rational equivalence on A lying above \bar\alpha. The assignment \bar\alpha -> \alpha respects the algebraic operations and pullback and push forward along homomorphisms of abelian varieties.

Abstract:
Cylindrical algebraic decomposition is one of the most important tools for computing with semi-algebraic sets, while triangular decomposition is among the most important approaches for manipulating constructible sets. In this paper, for an arbitrary finite set $F \subset {\R}[y_1, ..., y_n]$ we apply comprehensive triangular decomposition in order to obtain an $F$-invariant cylindrical decomposition of the $n$-dimensional complex space, from which we extract an $F$-invariant cylindrical algebraic decomposition of the $n$-dimensional real space. We report on an implementation of this new approach for constructing cylindrical algebraic decompositions.

Abstract:
Central in the Hopf algebra approach to the renormalization of perturbative quantum field theory of Connes and Kreimer is their Algebraic Birkhoff Decomposition. In this tutorial article, we introduce their decomposition and prove it by the Atkinson Factorization in Rota-Baxter algebra. We then give some applications of this decomposition in the study of divergent integrals and multiple zeta values.

Abstract:
In this paper we consider disjoint decomposition of algebraic and non-linear partial differential systems of equations and inequations into so-called simple subsystems. We exploit Thomas decomposition ideas and develop them into a new algorithm. For algebraic systems simplicity means triangularity, squarefreeness and non-vanishing initials. For differential systems the algorithm provides not only algebraic simplicity but also involutivity. The algorithm has been implemented in Maple.

Abstract:
We consider a relation between local and global characteristics of a differential algebraic variety. We prove that dimension of tangent space for every regular point of an irreducible differential algebraic variety coincides with dimension of the variety. Additionally, we classify tangent spaces at regular points in the case of one derivation.

Abstract:
We give a motivated introduction to the theory of perverse sheaves, culminating in the Decomposition Theorem of Beilinson, Bernstein, Deligne and Gabber. A goal of this survey is to show how the theory develops naturally from classical constructions used in the study of topological properties of algebraic varieties. While most proofs are omitted, we discuss several approaches to the Decomposition Theorem, indicate some important applications and examples.