Abstract:
We introduce an interpolation framework for H-infinity model reduction founded on ideas originating in optimal-H2 interpolatory model reduction, realization theory, and complex Chebyshev approximation. By employing a Loewner "data-driven" framework within each optimization cycle, large-scale H-infinity norm calculations can be completely avoided. Thus, we are able to formulate a method that remains effective in large-scale settings with the main cost dominated by sparse linear solves. Several numerical examples illustrate that our approach will produce high fidelity reduced models consistently exhibiting better H-infinity performance than those produced by balanced truncation; these models often are as good as (and occasionally better than) those models produced by optimal Hankel norm approximation. In all cases, these reduced models are produced at far lower cost than is possible either with balanced truncation or optimal Hankel norm approximation.

Abstract:
This paper introduces an interpolation framework for the weighted-H2 model reduction problem. We obtain a new representation of the weighted-H2 norm of SISO systems that provides new interpolatory first order necessary conditions for an optimal reduced-order model. The H2 norm representation also provides an error expression that motivates a new weighted-H2 model reduction algorithm. Several numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Abstract:
Nonlinear parametric inverse problems appear in several prominent applications; one such application is Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) in medical image reconstruction. Such inverse problems present huge computational challenges, mostly due to the need for solving a sequence of large-scale discretized, parametrized, partial differential equations (PDEs) in the forward model. In this paper, we show how interpolatory parametric model reduction can significantly reduce the cost of the inversion process in DOT by drastically reducing the computational cost of solving the forward problems. The key observation is that function evaluations for the underlying optimization problem may be viewed as transfer function evaluations along the imaginary axis; a similar observation holds for Jacobian evaluations as well. This motivates the use of system-theoretic model order reduction methods. We discuss the construction and use of interpolatory parametric reduced models as surrogates for the full forward model. Within the DOT setting, these surrogate models can approximate both the cost functional and the associated Jacobian with very little loss of accuracy while significantly reducing the cost of the overall inversion process. Four numerical examples illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach. Although we focus on DOT in this paper, we believe that our approach is applicable much more generally.

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate interpolatory projection framework for model reduction of descriptor systems. With a simple numerical example, we first illustrate that employing subspace conditions from the standard state space settings to descriptor systems generically leads to unbounded H2 or H-infinity errors due to the mismatch of the polynomial parts of the full and reduced-order transfer functions. We then develop modified interpolatory subspace conditions based on the deflating subspaces that guarantee a bounded error. For the special cases of index-1 and index-2 descriptor systems, we also show how to avoid computing these deflating subspaces explicitly while still enforcing interpolation. The question of how to choose interpolation points optimally naturally arises as in the standard state space setting. We answer this question in the framework of the H2-norm by extending the Iterative Rational Krylov Algorithm (IRKA) to descriptor systems. Several numerical examples are used to illustrate the theoretical discussion.

Abstract:
This paper develops an interpolatory framework for weighted-$\mathcal{H}_2$ model reduction of MIMO dynamical systems. A new representation of the weighted-$\mathcal{H}_2$ inner products in MIMO settings is introduced and used to derive associated first-order necessary conditions satisfied by optimal weighted-$\mathcal{H}_2$ reduced-order models. Equivalence of these new interpolatory conditions with earlier Riccati-based conditions given by Halevi is also shown. An examination of realizations for equivalent weighted-$\mathcal{H}_2$ systems leads then to an algorithm that remains tractable for large state-space dimension. Several numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of this approach and its competitiveness with Frequency Weighted Balanced Truncation and an earlier interpolatory approach, the Weighted Iterative Rational Krylov Algorithm.

Abstract:
This paper presents a model reduction method for the class of linear quantum stochastic systems often encountered in quantum optics and their related fields. The approach is proposed on the basis of an interpolatory projection ensuring that specific input-output responses of the original and the reduced-order systems are matched at multiple selected points (or frequencies). Importantly, the physical realizability property of the original quantum system imposed by the law of quantum mechanics is preserved under our tangential interpolatory projection. An error bound is established for the proposed model reduction method and an avenue to select interpolation points is proposed. A passivity preserving model reduction method is also presented. Examples of both active and passive systems are provided to illustrate the merits of our proposed approach.

Abstract:
The last two decades have seen major developments in interpolatory methods for model reduction of large-scale linear dynamical systems. Advances of note include the ability to produce (locally) optimal reduced models at modest cost; refined methods for deriving interpolatory reduced models directly from input/output measurements; and extensions for the reduction of parametrized systems. This chapter offers a survey of interpolatory model reduction methods starting from basic principles and ranging up through recent developments that include weighted model reduction and structure-preserving methods based on generalized coprime representations. Our discussion is supported by an assortment of numerical examples.

Abstract:
Direct numerical simulation of dynamical systems is of fundamental importance in studying a wide range of complex physical phenomena. However, the ever-increasing need for accuracy leads to extremely large-scale dynamical systems whose simulations impose huge computational demands. Model reduction offers one remedy to this problem by producing simpler reduced models that are both easier to analyze and faster to simulate while accurately replicating the original behavior. Interpolatory model reduction methods have emerged as effective candidates for very large-scale problems due to their ability to produce high-fidelity (optimal in some cases) reduced models for linear and bilinear dynamical systems with modest computational cost. In this paper, we will briefly review the interpolation framework for model reduction and describe a well studied flow control problem that requires model reduction of a large scale system of differential algebraic equations. We show that interpolatory model reduction produces a feedback control strategy that matches the structure of much more expensive control design methodologies.

Abstract:
The duality of dual resonance models is shown to imply that the four point string correlation function solves the Yang-Baxter equation. A reduction of transfer matrices to $A_l$ symmetry is described by a restriction of the KP $\tau$ function to Toda molecules.

Abstract:
Science and engineering problems frequently require solving a sequence of dual linear systems. Besides having to store only few Lanczos vectors, using the BiConjugate Gradient method (BiCG) to solve dual linear systems has advantages for specific applications. For example, using BiCG to solve the dual linear systems arising in interpolatory model reduction provides a backward error formulation in the model reduction framework. Using BiCG to evaluate bilinear forms -- for example, in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods for electronic structure calculations -- leads to a quadratic error bound. Since our focus is on sequences of dual linear systems, we introduce recycling BiCG, a BiCG method that recycles two Krylov subspaces from one pair of dual linear systems to the next pair. The derivation of recycling BiCG also builds the foundation for developing recycling variants of other bi-Lanczos based methods, such as CGS, BiCGSTAB, QMR, and TFQMR. We develop an augmented bi-Lanczos algorithm and a modified two-term recurrence to include recycling in the iteration. The recycle spaces are approximate left and right invariant subspaces corresponding to the eigenvalues closest to the origin. These recycle spaces are found by solving a small generalized eigenvalue problem alongside the dual linear systems being solved in the sequence. We test our algorithm in two application areas. First, we solve a discretized partial differential equation (PDE) of convection-diffusion type. Such a problem provides well-known test cases that are easy to test and analyze further. Second, we use recycling BiCG in the Iterative Rational Krylov Algorithm (IRKA) for interpolatory model reduction. IRKA requires solving sequences of slowly changing dual linear systems. We show up to 70% savings in iterations, and also demonstrate that for a model reduction problem BiCG takes (about) 50% more time than recycling BiCG.