Abstract:
We provide three functorial extensions of the equivalence between localic etale groupoids and their quantales. The main result is a biequivalence between the bicategory of localic etale groupoids, with bi-actions as 1-cells, and a bicategory of inverse quantal frames whose 1-cells are bimodules. As a consequence, the category InvQuF of inverse quantale frames, whose morphisms are the (necessarily involutive) homomorphisms of unital quantales, is equivalent to a category of localic etale groupoids whose arrows are the algebraic morphisms in the sense of Buneci and Stachura. We also show that the subcategory of InvQuF with the same objects and whose morphisms preserve finite meets is dually equivalent to a subcategory of the category of localic etale groupoids and continuous functors whose morphisms, in the context of topological groupoids, have been studied by Lawson and Lenz.

Abstract:
We establish a close and previously unknown relation between quantales and groupoids, in terms of which the notion of etale groupoid is subsumed in a natural way by that of quantale. In particular, to each etale groupoid, either localic or topological, there is associated a unital involutive quantale. We obtain a bijective correspondence between localic etale groupoids and their quantales, which are given a rather simple characterization and are here called inverse quantal frames. We show that the category of inverse quantal frames is equivalent to the category of complete and infinitely distributive inverse monoids, and as a consequence we obtain a correspondence between these and localic etale groupoids that generalizes more classical results concerning inverse semigroups and topological etale groupoids. This generalization is entirely algebraic and it is valid in an arbitrary topos. As a consequence of these results we see that a localic groupoid is etale if and only if its sublocale of units is open and its multiplication map is semiopen, and an analogue of this holds for topological groupoids. In practice we are provided with new tools for constructing localic and topological etale groupoids, as well as inverse semigroups, for instance via presentations of quantales by generators and relations. The characterization of inverse quantal frames is to a large extent based on a new quantale operation, here called a support, whose properties are thoroughly investigated, and which may be of independent interest.

Abstract:
It is well known that inverse semigroups are closely related to \'etale groupoids. In particular, it has recently been shown that there is a (non-functorial) equivalence between localic \'etale groupoids, on one hand, and complete and infinitely distributive inverse semigroups (abstract complete pseudogroups), on the other. This correspondence is mediated by a class of quantales, known as inverse quantal frames, that are obtained from the inverse semigroups by a simple join completion that yields an equivalence of categories. Hence, we can regard abstract complete pseudogroups as being essentially ``the same'' as inverse quantal frames, and in this paper we exploit this fact in order to find a suitable replacement for inverse semigroups in the context of open groupoids that are not necessarily \'etale. The interest of such a generalization lies in the importance and ubiquity of open groupoids in areas such as operator algebras, differential geometry and topos theory, and we achieve it by means of a class of quantales, called open quantal frames, which generalize inverse quantal frames and whose properties we study in detail. The resulting correspondence between quantales and open groupoids is not a straightforward generalization of the previous results concerning \'etale groupoids, and it depends heavily on the existence of inverse semigroups of local bisections of the quantales involved.

Abstract:
In this note we show that the theory of non abelian extensions of a Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ by a Lie algebra $\mathfrak{h}$ can be understood in terms of a differential graded Lie algebra $L$. More precisely we show that the non-abelian cohomology $H^2_{nab}(\mathfrak{g},\mathfrak{h})$ is $\mathcal{MC}(L)$, the $\pi_0$ of the Deligne groupoid of $L$.

Abstract:
In a recent paper, J. W. Pelletier and J. Rosicky published a characterization of *-simple *-quantales. Their results were adapted for the case of simple quantales by J. Paseka. In this paper we present similar characterizations which do not use a notion of discrete quantale. We also show a completely new characterization based on separating and cyclic sets. Further we explain a link to simple quantale modules. To apply these characterizations, we study (*-)semisimple (*-)quantales and discuss some other perspectives. Our approach has connections with several earlier works on the subject.

Abstract:
In this paper, the definition of the saturated element in quantale is given, Based on the coproduct of monoids, the concrete forms of the coproduct of unital quantales is obatined. Also, some properties of their are discussed. KeyWords: Quantale; Monoid; Saturated element; Coproduct; Category

Abstract:
We introduce the concept of a Girard couple, which consists of two (not necessarily unital) quantales linked by a strong form of duality. The two basic examples of Girard couples arise in the study of endomorphism quantales and of the spectra of operator algebras. We construct, for an arbitrary sup-lattice $S$, a Girard quantale whose right-sided part is isomorphic to $S$.

Abstract:
In this paper we first give a simplicial approach to the definition of a non strict $n$-category that we call an $n$-nerve following the idea that a category could be interpreted as a simplicial set, and we prove that our construction generalises the case of the usual non strict 2-category. Next we give a simplicial definition of a non strict $n$-groupoid. Then we associate to any space $X$ an $n$-groupoid $\Pi _{_{n}}(X)$ which generalises the famous Poincar\'e groupoid $\Pi _{_{1}}(X)$ and embodies the $n$-truncated homotopy type of $X$. We also give a natural construction for the geometric realisation of an $n$-groupoid and we conjecture that the functor geometric realisation is an inverse up to equivalence to the functor $\Pi _{_{n}}(\ )$ from the category of $n$-truncated topological spaces to the category $n$-Gr of $n$-groupoids.

Abstract:
In this paper, the definition of the saturated element in quantale is given, Based on the coproduct of monoids, the concrete forms of the coproduct of unital quantales is obatined. Also, some properties of their are discussed. Key words: Quantale; Monoid; Saturated element; Coproduct; Category

Abstract:
The functor Max of Mulvey assigns to each unital C*-algebra A the unital involutive quantale Max A of closed linear subspaces of A, and it has been remarked that it classifies unital C*-algebras up to *-isomorphism. In this paper we provide a proof of this and of the stronger fact that for every isomorphism u : Max A -> Max B of unital involutive quantales there is a *-isomorphism u' : A -> B such that Max u' coincides with u when restricted to the left-sided elements of Max A. But we also show that isomorphisms u : Max A -> Max B may exist for which no isomorphism v : A -> B is such that Max v = u.