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On symmetrization of 6j-symbols and Levin-Wen Hamiltonian  [PDF]
Seung-Moon Hong
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: It is known that every ribbon category with unimodality allows symmetrized $6j$-symbols with full tetrahedral symmetries while a spherical category does not in general. We give an explicit counterexample for this, namely the category $\mathcal{E}$. We define the mirror conjugate symmetry of $6j$-symbols instead and show that $6j$-symbols of any unitary spherical category can be normalized to have this property. As an application, we discuss an exactly soluble model on a honeycomb lattice. We prove that the Levin-Wen Hamiltonian is exactly soluble and hermitian on a unitary spherical category.
On Enriching the Levin-Wen model with Symmetry  [PDF]
Liang Chang,Meng Cheng,Shawn X. Cui,Yuting Hu,Wei Jin,Ramis Movassagh,Pieter Naaijkens,Zhenghan Wang,Amanda Young
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/48/12/12FT01
Abstract: Symmetry protected and symmetry enriched topological phases of matter are of great interest in condensed matter physics due to new materials such as topological insulators. The Levin-Wen model for spin/boson systems is an important rigorously solvable model for studying $2D$ topological phases. The input data for the Levin-Wen model is a unitary fusion category, but the same model also works for unitary multi-fusion categories. In this paper, we provide the details for this extension of the Levin-Wen model, and show that the extended Levin-Wen model is a natural playground for the theoretical study of symmetry protected and symmetry enriched topological phases of matter.
String-net model of Turaev-Viro invariants  [PDF]
Alexander Kirillov Jr
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, we describe the relation between the Turaev--Viro TQFT and the string-net space introduced in the papers of Levin and Wen. In particular, the case of surfaces with boundary is considered in detail.
Some universal properties of Levin-Wen models  [PDF]
Liang Kong
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We review the key steps of the construction of Levin-Wen type of models on lattices with boundaries and defects of codimension 1,2,3 in a joint work with Alexei Kitaev. We emphasize some universal properties, such as boundary-bulk duality and duality-defect correspondence, shared by all these models. New results include a detailed analysis of the local properties of a boundary excitation and a conjecture on the functoriality of the monoidal center.
Quantum Circuits for Measuring Levin-Wen Operators  [PDF]
N. E. Bonesteel,D. P. DiVincenzo
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.165113
Abstract: We construct quantum circuits for measuring the commuting set of vertex and plaquette operators that appear in the Levin-Wen model for doubled Fibonacci anyons. Such measurements can be viewed as syndrome measurements for the quantum error-correcting code defined by the ground states of this model (the Fibonacci code). We quantify the complexity of these circuits with gate counts using different universal gate sets and find these measurements become significantly easier to perform if n-qubit Toffoli gates with n = 3,4 and 5 can be carried out directly. In addition to measurement circuits, we construct simplified quantum circuits requiring only a few qubits that can be used to verify that certain self-consistency conditions, including the pentagon equation, are satisfied by the Fibonacci code.
Wilson Line Picture of Levin-Wen Partition Functions  [PDF]
F. J. Burnell,Steven H. Simon
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/13/6/065001
Abstract: Levin and Wen [Phys. Rev. B 71, 045110 (2005)] have recently given a lattice Hamiltonian description of doubled Chern-Simons theories. We relate the partition function of these theories to an expectation of Wilson loops that form a link in 2+1 dimensional spacetime known in the mathematical literature as Chain-Mail. This geometric construction gives physical interpretation of the Levin-Wen Hilbert space and Hamiltonian, its topological invariance, exactness under coarse-graining, and how two opposite chirality sectors of the doubled theory arise.
Ground State Degeneracy in the Levin-Wen Model for Topological Phases  [PDF]
Yuting Hu,Spencer D. Stirling,Yong-Shi Wu
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.075107
Abstract: We study properties of topological phases by calculating the ground state degeneracy (GSD) of the 2d Levin-Wen (LW) model. Here it is explicitly shown that the GSD depends only on the spatial topology of the system. Then we show that the ground state on a sphere is always non-degenerate. Moreover, we study an example associated with a quantum group, and show that the GSD on a torus agrees with that of the doubled Chern-Simons theory, consistent with the conjectured equivalence between the LW model associated with a quantum group and the doubled Chern-Simons theory.
Full Dyon Excitation Spectrum in Generalized Levin-Wen Models  [PDF]
Yuting Hu,Nathan Geer,Yong-Shi Wu
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In Levin-Wen (LW) models, a wide class of exactly solvable discrete models, for two dimensional topological phases, it is relatively easy to describe single fluxon excitations, but not the charge and dyonic as well as many-fluxon excitations. To incorporate charged and dyonic excitations in (doubled) topological phases, a generalization of the LW models is proposed in this paper. We first enlarge the Hilbert space with adding a tail on one of the edges of each trivalent vertex, to describe its internal charge degrees of freedom. Then we study the full dyon spectrum of generalized LW models, including both quantum numbers and wave functions for dyonic quasiparticle excitations. The local operators associated with the dyonic excitations are shown to form the so-called Tube algebra, whose representations (modules) form the quantum double (categoric center) of the input data (unitary fusion category). In physically relevant cases, the input data is from a finite or quantum group (with braiding $R$-matrices), we find that the elementary excitations (or dyon species), as well as any localized/isolated excited states, are characterized by three quantum numbers: charge, fluxon type, and twist. They provide a "complete basis" for many-body states in the enlarged Hilbert space. Concrete examples are presented and the relevance of our results to the electric-magnetic duality is discussed.
Mapping Kitaev's quantum double lattice models to Levin and Wen's string-net models  [PDF]
Oliver Buerschaper,Miguel Aguado
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.80.155136
Abstract: We exhibit a mapping identifying Kitaev's quantum double lattice models explicitly as a subclass of Levin and Wen's string net models via a completion of the local Hilbert spaces with auxiliary degrees of freedom. This identification allows to carry over to these string net models the representation-theoretic classification of the excitations in quantum double models, as well as define them in arbitrary lattices, and provides an illustration of the abstract notion of Morita equivalence. The possibility of generalising the map to broader classes of string nets is considered.
Independence polynomials of well-covered graphs: generic counterexamples for the unimodality conjecture  [PDF]
Vadim E. Levit,Eugen Mandrescu
Mathematics , 2003,
Abstract: A graph $G$ is well-covered if all its maximal stable sets have the same size, denoted by alpha(G) (M. D. Plummer, 1970). If for any $k$ the $k$-th coefficient of a polynomial I(G;x) is equal to the number of stable sets of cardinality $k$ in graph $G$, then it is called the independence polynomial of $G$ (Gutman and Harary, 1983). J. I. Brown, K. Dilcher and R. J. Nowakowski (2000) conjectured that I(G;x) is unimodal (that is, there exists an index $k$ such that the part of the sequence of coefficients from the first to $k$-th is non-decreasing while the other part of coefficients is non-increasing) for any well-covered graph $G$. T. S. Michael and W. N. Traves (2002) proved that this assertion is true for alpha(G) < 4, while for alpha(G) from the set {4,5,6,7} they provided counterexamples. In this paper we show that for any integer $alpha$ > 7, there exists a (dis)connected well-covered graph $G$ with $alpha$ = alpha(G), whose independence polynomial is not unimodal. In addition, we present a number of sufficient conditions for a graph $G$ with alpha(G) < 7 to have unimodal independence polynomial.
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