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A Glimpse at Mathematical Diffraction Theory  [PDF]
Michael Baake
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: Mathematical diffraction theory is concerned with the analysis of the diffraction measure of a translation bounded complex measure $\omega$. It emerges as the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation measure of $\omega$. The mathematically rigorous approach has produced a number of interesting results in the context of perfect and random systems, some of which are summarized here.
Physics in the kitchen
Peter Barham
Flavour , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2044-7248-2-5
Abstract: During the meal, as we eat we note how good the food is, where there is room for improvement and what is particularly liked. In effect we analyse the results of the experiment – the good scientific cook will keep notes of these discussions and use them to draw preliminary conclusions about how to improve the recipe. After several more tests of the recipe, we may then begin to derive a model to explain our results and to understand how and why making small changes to the recipe produces different qualities in the final dish – we can then use that understanding and apply it to other recipes, so continually improving our cooking skills.This is nothing more than the application of the scientific method to cookery – simple but highly effective. If taken seriously and applied properly there is no excuse for any scientifically trained person not to become a superb cook.But is there more to physics in the kitchen than ensuring physicists are good cooks? Can physics help chefs with no scientific background improve their own cooking? Is this really an area that is worth the attention of serious physicists? Is there new physics to be learned from the study of gastronomy? My unsurprising opinion is that there is good physics to be learned in the kitchen and that investigating the science of cooking is a worthwhile academic pursuit – but of course I would believe that as I have been doing it for more than 25 years now. So perhaps it is time to examine more critically whether it is indeed a worthwhile occupation.One of the most basic kitchen operations is to heat food to change its texture or chemical make-up (or both). To ensure some degree of consistency between cooks there is a need to have some assurance that the temperatures used in different kitchens are closely similar (if not the same). Without the use of expensive scientific equipment the only easy way is to use a phase transition that occurs at a fixed temperature – and the simplest and most accessible of these is to us
Modeling of mould cavity filling process with cast iron in Lost Foam method Part 3. Mathematical model – pressure inside the gas gap  [PDF]
T. Pacyniak,R Kaczorowski
Archives of Foundry Engineering , 2008,
Abstract: In this work mathematical model describing changes of pressure inside the gas gap was shown during manufacturing gray cast iron castings with use of lost foam process. Authors analyzed the results of numerical simulation enclosing influence of foamed polystyrene pattern density, permeability and thickness of refractory coating on pressure changes in the gap. Studies have shown, that all these parameters have significant influence on pressure inside the gas gap.
A Simplified Mathematical Model for the Formation of Null Singularities Inside Black Holes I - Basic Formulation and a Conjecture  [PDF]
Amos Ori,Dan Gorbonos
Mathematics , 2006, DOI: 10.1063/1.2779950
Abstract: Einstein's equations are known to lead to the formation of black holes and spacetime singularities. This appears to be a manifestation of the mathematical phenomenon of finite-time blowup: a formation of singularities from regular initial data. We present a simple hyperbolic system of two semi-linear equations inspired by the Einstein equations. We explore a class of solutions to this system which are analogous to static black-hole models. These solutions exhibit a black-hole structure with a finite-time blowup on a characteristic line mimicking the null inner horizon of spinning or charged black holes. We conjecture that this behavior - namely black-hole formation with blow-up on a characteristic line - is a generic feature of our semi-linear system. Our simple system may provide insight into the formation of null singularities inside spinning or charged black holes in the full system of Einstein equations.
A Simplified Mathematical Model for the Formation of Null Singularities Inside Black Holes II  [PDF]
Dan Gorbonos,Gershon Wolansky
Mathematics , 2006, DOI: 10.1063/1.2779949
Abstract: We study a simple system of two hyperbolic semi-linear equations, inspired by the Einstein equations. The system, which was introduced in gr-qc/0612136, is a model for singularity formation inside black holes. We show for a particular case of the equations that the system demonstrates a finite time blowup. The singularity that is formed is a null singularity. Then we show that in this particular case the singularity has features that are analogous to known features of models of black-hole interiors - which describe the inner-horizon instability. Our simple system may provide insight into the formation of null singularities inside spinning or charged black holes.
Kitchen Remedies for Common Maladies  [PDF]
B.Sandhya,T. Rambabu,Ravi Kumar Gupta,Pushpawathi Chaudary
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research , 2012,
Abstract: It is well-known that every country has traditional cures for common diseases. Similarly in India also home recipes are advocated by Vaidyas and Hakims since antiquity because of easy to prepare and free of side-effects as well as the availability of basic ingredients easily in and around our surroundings. In this study a sincere effort is made by the authors to create awareness in the minds of present-day generation about the medicinal utility of various commonly available home remedies. On critical analysis, it is observed that nearly 20 herbs viz. Ajamoda, Ardraka, Sunthi, Hingu, Haridra, Jeeraka, Methi, Rajika, Dhanyaka, Lasuna, Palandu, Curry leaf etc. are the commonly available in every kitchen. It is also observed that these herbs are useful for themanagement of more than 20 different conditions such as indigestion, abdominal colic, common cold, cough, fever, diarrhoea, joint pains, hyper-acidity, urticarial rash etc. Along with the classical references latest research findings of the enlisted herbs are also documented in the present study.
Computing A Glimpse of Randomness  [PDF]
Cristian S. Calude,Michael J. Dinneen,Chi-Kou Shu
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: A Chaitin Omega number is the halting probability of a universal Chaitin (self-delimiting Turing) machine. Every Omega number is both computably enumerable (the limit of a computable, increasing, converging sequence of rationals) and random (its binary expansion is an algorithmic random sequence). In particular, every Omega number is strongly non-computable. The aim of this paper is to describe a procedure, which combines Java programming and mathematical proofs, for computing the exact values of the first 64 bits of a Chaitin Omega: 0000001000000100000110001000011010001111110010111011101000010000. Full description of programs and proofs will be given elsewhere.
A Review on Mechanical & Physical Hazards at Domestic Kitchen  [PDF]
Jaita Mondal
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/ijosh.v2i1.5920
Abstract: Kitchen is one of the most important aspects in our life. We wait eagerly for the delicious foodstuffs of our kitchenette. However, many simple but repetitive kitchen activities can be a threat to our health. Such as peeling potatoes, chopping, and picking up heavy pots and kettles, overstretching to reach to utensils or ingredients etc. can cause or aggravate pain & discomfort in hand, wrist, elbow, shoulder and neck (Physical hazards). ?Musculoskeletal problems are not only the one, but various accidents also happen in domestic kitchen (Mechanical Hazards). Traumatic and repetitive injuries related to kitchen tasks include lacerations, cut, slips & falls, tendonitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, thermal strains, burn etc.? Those menaces generally occur due to poor ergonomics, as poor work practices, poor quality equipment and poorly maintained equipment.
Adaptability of Kitchen Furniture for Elderly People in Terms of Safety  [cached]
Jasna Hrovatin,Kaja ?irok,Simona Jev?nik,Leon Oblak
Drvna Industrija , 2012,
Abstract: The number of senior citizens is rapidly increasing, which consequently signifi es an increase in the number of people having sight, hearing or memory diffi culties, people with hampered mobility, and people who find it increasingly diffi cult to process information. Elderly persons experience a greater degree of risk whilst performing daily tasks in their kitchens. Moreover, they are more susceptible to infection and illnesses, necessitating greater care to achieve hygienic conditions within their kitchens. The goal of our research was to determine whether people are generally content with the functionality of their kitchens and whether the degree of dissatisfaction increases with the age of the users. The study aims to pinpoint any major problems facing elderly people whilst working in their kitchens and to establish criteria for kitchen furniture design that could be tailored to senior users’ interests, with the focus on safety. This research was carried out via individual surveys at the respondents’ homes. 204 respondents participated in the research. The results show that most users do not realize that, with more appropriate kitchen equipment, they could perform daily tasks faster, safer, and with less effort. Common shortcomings include insuffi cient lighting (32 %), inappropriate sequential composition of work surfaces (56 %), ease of hygiene maintenance (68 %), inappropriately - shaped furniture (72 %), and tasks that become troublesome because of declining memory (75 %). We believe that it is necessary to design kitchen equipment specifically adjusted for the needs of the elderly.
A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living  [PDF]
Rubén Blasco,álvaro Marco,Roberto Casas,Diego Cirujano,Richard Picking
Sensors , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/s140101629
Abstract: The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.
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