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On a generalization of distance sets  [PDF]
Hiroshi Nozaki,Masashi Shinohara
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: A subset $X$ in the $d$-dimensional Euclidean space is called a $k$-distance set if there are exactly $k$ distinct distances between two distinct points in $X$ and a subset $X$ is called a locally $k$-distance set if for any point $x$ in $X$, there are at most $k$ distinct distances between $x$ and other points in $X$. Delsarte, Goethals, and Seidel gave the Fisher type upper bound for the cardinalities of $k$-distance sets on a sphere in 1977. In the same way, we are able to give the same bound for locally $k$-distance sets on a sphere. In the first part of this paper, we prove that if $X$ is a locally $k$-distance set attaining the Fisher type upper bound, then determining a weight function $w$, $(X,w)$ is a tight weighted spherical $2k$-design. This result implies that locally $k$-distance sets attaining the Fisher type upper bound are $k$-distance sets. In the second part, we give a new absolute bound for the cardinalities of $k$-distance sets on a sphere. This upper bound is useful for $k$-distance sets for which the linear programming bound is not applicable. In the third part, we discuss about locally two-distance sets in Euclidean spaces. We give an upper bound for the cardinalities of locally two-distance sets in Euclidean spaces. Moreover, we prove that the existence of a spherical two-distance set in $(d-1)$-space which attains the Fisher type upper bound is equivalent to the existence of a locally two-distance set but not a two-distance set in $d$-space with more than $d(d+1)/2$ points. We also classify optimal (largest possible) locally two-distance sets for dimensions less than eight. In addition, we determine the maximum cardinalities of locally two-distance sets on a sphere for dimensions less than forty.
Bounds on three- and higher-distance sets  [PDF]
Oleg R. Musin,Hiroshi Nozaki
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: A finite set X in a metric space M is called an s-distance set if the set of distances between any two distinct points of X has size s. The main problem for s-distance sets is to determine the maximum cardinality of s-distance sets for fixed s and M. In this paper, we improve the known upper bound for s-distance sets in n-sphere for s=3,4. In particular, we determine the maximum cardinalities of three-distance sets for n=7 and 21. We also give the maximum cardinalities of s-distance sets in the Hamming space and the Johnson space for several s and dimensions.
A lower bound for 4-regular planar unit distance graphs  [PDF]
Sascha Kurz
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We perform an exhaustive search for the minimum 4-regular unit distance graph resulting in a lower bound of 34 vertices.
A Cantor set in the unit sphere in $\mathbb{C}^2$ with large polynomial hull  [PDF]
Burglind J?ricke
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: It is an old question how massive polynomial hulls of Cantor sets in $\mathbb{C}^n$ can be. In contrast to expectation e.g. Rudin, Vitushkin and Henkin showed on examples that it can be rather massive. Motivated by problems of holomorphic convexity of subsets of strictly pseudoconvex boundaries and removable singularities the question was asked for Cantor sets in the unit sphere. It was known that tame Cantor sets in the unit sphere are polynomially convex. We give an example of a wild Cantor set in the sphere whose polynomial hull contains a large ball. In some sense this can be opposed to a still open conjecture of Vitushkin on the existence of a lower bound for the diameter of the largest boundary component of a relatively closed complex curve in the ball passing through the origin.
The Erd?s-Falconer distance problem on the unit sphere in vector spaces over finite fields  [PDF]
Le Anh Vinh
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: art, Iosevich, Koh and Rudnev (2007) show, using Fourier analysis method, that the finite Erd\"os-Falconer distance conjecture holds for subsets of the unit sphere in $\mathbbm{F}_q^d$. In this note, we give a graph theoretic proof of this result.
Positive definite functions in distance geometry  [PDF]
Oleg R. Musin
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: I. J. Schoenberg proved that a function is positive definite in the unit sphere if and only if this function is a nonnegative linear combination of Gegenbauer polynomials. This fact play a crucial role in Delsarte's method for finding bounds for the density of sphere packings on spheres and Euclidean spaces. One of the most excited applications of Delsarte's method is a solution of the kissing number problem in dimensions 8 and 24. However, 8 and 24 are the only dimensions in which this method gives a precise result. For other dimensions (for instance, three and four) the upper bounds exceed the lower. We have found an extension of the Delsarte method that allows to solve the kissing number problem (as well as the one-sided kissing number problem) in dimensions three and four. In this paper we also will discuss the maximal cardinalities of spherical two-distance sets. Using the so-called polynomial method and Delsarte's method these cardinalities can be determined for all dimensions $n<40$. Recently, were found extensions of Schoenberg's theorem for multivariate positive-definite functions. Using these extensions and semidefinite programming can be improved some upper bounds for spherical codes.
Cardinalities of k-distance sets in Minkowski spaces  [PDF]
Konrad J. Swanepoel
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1090/S0002-9939-96-03370-9
Abstract: A subset of a metric space is a k-distance set if there are exactly k non-zero distances occuring between points. We conjecture that a k-distance set in a d-dimensional Banach space (or Minkowski space), contains at most (k+1)^d points, with equality iff the unit ball is a parallelotope. We solve this conjecture in the affirmative for all 2-dimensional spaces and for spaces where the unit ball is a parallelotope. For general spaces we find various weaker upper bounds for k-distance sets.
Polynomial Interpolation on the Unit Sphere II  [PDF]
Wolfgang zu Castell,Noemi Lain Fernandez,Yuan Xu
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: The problem of interpolation at $(n+1)^2$ points on the unit sphere $\mathbb{S}^2$ by spherical polynomials of degree at most $n$ is proved to have a unique solution for several sets of points. The points are located on a number of circles on the sphere with even number of points on each circle. The proof is based on a method of factorization of polynomials.
Compression on the digital unit sphere  [cached]
Mohamed Allali
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations , 2001,
Abstract: A method for compressing functions on the unit sphere is presented. This method is based on a Ramanujan set of rotations, and generates an equidistributed system of points. This method is flexible and easy to implement as it needs only few transformations to cover the whole unit sphere with spherical caps.
Unit-sphere games  [PDF]
Pingzhong Tang,Hanrui Zhang
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This paper introduces a class of games, called unit-sphere games, where strategies are real vectors with unit 2-norms (or, on a unit-sphere). As a result, they can no longer be interpreted as probability distributions over actions, but rather be thought of as allocations of one unit of resource to actions and the multiplicative payoff effect on each action is proportional to square-root of the amount of resource allocated to that action. The new definition generates a number of interesting consequences. We first characterize sufficient and necessary conditions under which a two-player unit-sphere game has a Nash equilibrium. The characterization effectively reduces solving a unit-sphere game to finding all eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the product of individual payoff matrices. For any unit-sphere game with non-negative payoff matrices, there always exists a unique Nash equilibrium; furthermore, the unique equilibrium is efficiently reachable via Cournot adjustment. In addition, we show that any equilibrium in positive unit-sphere games corresponds to approximate equilibria in the corresponding normal-form games. Analogous but weaker results are extended to positive n-player unit-sphere games.
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